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Biographical notes on War Captains and Mercenary Leaders operating in Italy between 1330 and 1550

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The Rise of Condottiero Boldrino da Panicale

Italian CondottieriThe Rise of Condottiero Boldrino da Panicale

Ferocious Condottiere, Merciless Towards Enemies, Whose Wandering Life Was Typical of Many War Professionals in the Second Half of the 14th Century. A Man Who Enjoyed Such Fame Among His Soldiers That, Upon His Death, They Embalmed His Body and Carried It with Them in All Their Military Campaigns.

Indice delle Signorie dei Condottieri: ABCDEFGIJLMNOPQRSTUVZ

Boldrino’s Quest for Vengeance: A Tale of Tragedy and Triumph.

Boldrino da Panicale was a fierce condottiero, without mercy for his enemies, whose wandering life was typical of many war professionals in the second half of the 1300s. A man who enjoyed such fame among his soldiers that, upon his death, they embalmed his corpse, carrying it with them in all their military actions.

BOLDRINO DA PANICALE (Giacomo Paneri, Boldrino Paneri, Boldrino Pamieri, Boldrino da Perugia) Of Panicale. Of peasant origin. Lord of Civitanova Marche, Arquata del Tronto, Ficano (Poggio San Vicino).

Born: 1331 (circa)
Death: 1391 (june)

Year, monthState, Comp. venturaOpponentConductActivity AreaActions taken and other salient facts
…………UmbriaA decisive episode for the future choices of Boldrino is the murder of his father Ambrogio, stabbed multiple times on the bed of the Gioveto ditch. Blinded by hatred, he is driven to seek, at the moment without results, the assassins. He abandons the trade of farmer to embark on a life of adventure.
1348-1351UmbriaHe lives in Perugia where he serves in the city’s military college. In 1351, he learns the names of his father’s killers. He secretly leaves the city and returns to Panicale. He kills the two men responsible for his father’s death in their homes. He is convicted in absentia for the crime by the municipal authorities. He initially finds refuge in the small church of Santa Maria La Querciolana, at the foot of the town. As a company of fortune-seekers approaches, looking to recruit soldiers, he joins them.
…………He serves for two years with the Tarlati, forming a fraternal friendship with Bartolomeo da Pietramala and the lord of Cotona, Uguccione Casali. He is sought by the Perugians for murder and desertion; a hefty bounty hangs over his head. During this period, he is particularly noted in the Marche region. He is knighted after being among the first to scale the walls of a castle following two futile assaults.
1362Comp. venturaHe serves in the company of Giovanni Acuto (Sir John Hawkwood).
1364
Apr.PisaFlorenceTuscanyHe fights under the command of Giovanni Acuto against the Florentines. He takes part in the devastations of Tuscany, conducted right up to the gates of Florence.
JulyTuscanyHe takes part in the Battle of Cascina, in which Acuto is defeated. He avoids capture with his captain because, at the moment of the clash, he is at the rear guard.
1367
Mar.FlorenceEmpireTuscanyAlways alongside the English condottiero (military leader), Giovanni Acuto (Sir John Hawkwood). The Florentines hire the latter’s company, with a brief contract, in order to prevent the troops of Emperor Charles of Bohemia from wreaking havoc in the countryside during their passage.
1376Comp. venturaMarcheHe ends his service in the company of Giovanni Acuto (Sir John Hawkwood) to establish his own company, consisting of 1000 men, including horsemen and archers. His captains are Ambrogio Ceppotti, Cherubino Cherubini, Guglielmo Saccallossi, and some relatives like his cousin Anselmo. His presence is noted in the Marche: the region is continuously disrupted by his bands.
1378Matelica, San Severino MarcheCamerinoMarcheHe winters with 1000 horses and many infantrymen in the territories of Matelica and San Severino Marche. He conducts numerous raids in the countryside of Camerino.
1382
…………ChurchCamerinoMarcheUnder the pay of the Rector of the Marca with the purpose of fighting the lord of Camerino, Gentile da Varano. He captures the castle of Penna San Giovanni, previously conquered by the enemies. The adversaries are forced to retreat to San Ginesio. During this period, the young Muzio Attendolo Sforza is present in his company, serving as a saccomanno (a military rank).
…………PerugiaExilesUmbriaHe is hired by the Perugians for twelve days with the purpose of opposing the exiles. He is dismissed at the end of this period; his colleague Riccardo Ramsey, on the other hand, is confirmed.
…………Comp. venturaSienaUmbria, TuscanyWith the favor of the lord of Cortona, Uguccione Casali, along with Bartolomeo da Pietramala and Guido d’Asciano, he throws himself into the Sienese countryside and sacks it. He sows terror, robberies, killings, and vengeance everywhere.
1383
Jan.Comp. venturaUmbriaThe Perugian authorities intervene in his case, so that he may set a limit to his incursions in Umbria.
Feb.Comp. venturaSienaTuscanyHe crosses the bridge of Valiano and plunders the territory of Montepulciano.
SpringComp. venturaCortonaTuscanyHe again pillages the Sienese territory and the lands of Cortona; he halts in Chiusi where he makes large booty. His soldiers resell the spoils in the market of Siena.
…………PerugiaExilesUmbriaHe fights Michelotto dei Michelotti and Niccolò dei Michelotti, accused of wanting to reconcile with the exiles. Leading 600 horses, he swoops into the Chiugi with Bartolomeo da Pietramala; Boldrino da Panicale moves to Castelnuovo and from there sets out to plunder the coasts of Lake Trasimeno, including Isola Maggiore and Isola Polvese. As a friend of Pietramala, he is awarded the coat of arms of the Tarlati by him.
1384
Feb.ExilesPerugiaUmbriaUnder pressure from Michelotto dei Michelotti, he changes sides, operates in the surroundings of Perugia; always with Bartolomeo da Pietramala, he sows ruin at Ponte San Giovanni and Ponte Val di Ceppi.
…………PerugiaExiles150 lancesUmbriaHe makes peace with the Perugians; under pressure from the Cardinal Legate Bomporti and Antonio da Montefeltro, he returns to their payroll to once again oppose the Michelotti. He obtains a contract for 150 lances and is recognized a monthly compensation of 500 florins.
MayPerugia, Comp. venturaComp. ventura, CamerinoUmbriaWith Giovanni Acuto (Sir John Hawkwood), Giovanni degli Ubaldini, Riccardo Ramsey, and Bartolomeo da Pietramala, he forms the Company of the Rose. He then moves with his men to the Marche region, damaging the lands of the da Varano: he threatens Amandola with 500 horses and 300 infantrymen. He arrives at Cingoli.
JunePietramala, SienaCittà di Castello, ExilesGeneral Captain 150 lancesUmbria, TuscanyHe hostilely brings arms into the countryside of Città di Castello in favor of Pietramala. He quickly switches to being under the pay of the Sienese with 150 lances.
JulyPietramala, SienaCittà di Castello, VicoUmbria, TuscanyHe attends the review of his own men. He turns again against Città di Castello, whose inhabitants are guilty of continually harassing the lands of the Pietramala. He then fights for the Sienese against the prefect Francesco di Vico; conversely, he refuses to confront the Malavolti and the Salimbeni, who are devastating the territory near the capital. He provides the excuse of not having been commissioned to attack the exiles. He accepts money from the latter and secretly favors them.
Dec.SienaComp. ventura150 lances and 15 lance morte (dead lances)He is contracted for six months with 150 live lances and 15 dead (that is, existing only on paper). Each lance is paid a monthly salary of 18 florins. The total cost of his contract will amount to 18,744 florins. He defeats near San Galgano the company of Guido d’Asciano, Ugolotto Biancardo, and Anderlino Trotti.
1385
Jan.Comp. venturaUmbriaHe stops in Umbria: the Perugians approach him through Contucciolo di Niccolò, Petruccio Montesperelli, and Bartolomeo Guidalotti, who deliver to him 500 florins so that he does not provide assistance to the exiles, nor undertake any hostile action against the commune.
Feb.SienaExilesTuscanyThe Sienese send him with part of his company against the Malavolti, who are conducting guerrilla warfare to the detriment of the commune. He attacks Scorgiano with 300 horses and sets fire to the palace in which Uguccione Malavolti has fortified himself: the latter surrenders to him and descends from the fortress via a rope with his daughter-in-law, four grandchildren, and a priest; a servant dies due to the rope breaking; Malavolti’s wife also dies in the fire. Considerable quantities of wheat, oil, fodder, salted meat, and various household items, valued at 12,000 florins, are also destroyed in the flames. Subsequently, Boldrino da Panicale infests the nearby territory; he raids 50 oxen, 60 donkeys, and many pigs; fights the Salimbeni and moves to the aid of Giuncarico. The nobles hire 300 Breton horses: they get the better of Panicale and interrupt the flow of supplies to Siena. The condottiero barricades himself in the city and refuses to leave.
Mar.War CaptainTuscanyHe is named War Captain; the insignias of command are handed to him, which he reluctantly accepts. Florentine ambassadors deliver to him 4,000 florins on behalf of his rivals so that he remains inactive. Pretending to want peace between the popular and noble factions, he distances himself from Siena and scatters his militias in the countryside to better subject it to pillage.
Apr. – MayExilesSienaTuscany, UmbriaPushed by the exiles, he positions himself in front of a gate of Siena, waiting for it to be opened: the plot is revealed by one of the conspirators. It concludes with the beheading of 9 men, the hanging of another 13, and the banishment of 48 residents. Panicale moves against San Quirico, where he is promised possession of all the goods collected there by the Nove: he is repelled with some losses. Soon there is a revolt in Siena that leads to a change in the city government: 4,000 artisans abandon the city, scattering throughout various Italian districts. Panicale can thus return to Perugia laden with loot. In the same days, he joins forces with Taddeo Pepoli and threatens the Florentine territory. The republic asks the Bolognese to be able to use 75 English lances that have recently concluded their period of service with that commune. During this period, Panicale founds the Company of the Rose with Acuto, Ubaldini, Pepoli, Everardo della Campana, and Pietramala. The company boasts 3,000 horsemen and 1,000 infantrymen.
JuneComp. venturaBologna, MilanUmbria, Tuscany, EmiliaHe is approached by Biordo Oddi, who promises him 500 florins in order to prevent raids in the territory of the commune for two months. He moves to Val di Chiana with Pepoli; he connects with Acuto, Ubaldini, and Pepoli; he penetrates into Bolognese territory. The inhabitants of the Felsinean commune, after suffering severe damage, recognize a bounty of 30,000/35,000 florins (officially 15,000) to the venturieri (mercenary troops). He then heads towards Milanese territory with the objective of freeing Bernabò Visconti, deprived of the lordship of Milan by his nephew Gian Galeazzo. The Visconti halt the company’s march. Ubaldini soon abandons him with 800 horses and connects in the Bolognese territory with Asciano. He obtains a safe-conduct from Bologna; once more, he threatens the Sienese.
JulyTolomei, ChurchSiena, NaplesTuscany, Romagna, Marche, Umbria, CampaniaHe is in the pay of the Tolomei; he reaches an agreement with the Sienese upon the acknowledgment of an annual provision of 500 florins and his commitment not to offend their territory for four years. He returns to the service of Pope Urban VI (papa Urbano VI). He departs from Imola with Grasso da Imola, crosses the county of Fano, and heads to Nocera Umbra with the aim to combat the troops of Charles of Durazzo (Carlo di Durazzo). During the march approaching this center, he vents in the territory of Assisi, where he raids numerous heads of cattle and captures many men.
Aug.Comp. venturaUmbriaHe raids along the shores of Lake Trasimeno with Bartolomeo da Pietramala. As usual, numerous heads of cattle are raided in Chiugi. He enters Isola Maggiore, sacks Isola Polvese, and, still with Pietramala, assaults numerous castles. He then connects with Giovanni Beltoft and Taddeo Pepoli, and enters Sienese territory. The Sienese hand over 2,000 florins to the three condottieri so that their territory might be spared for a certain period of time (one year).
Sept.Comp. ventura, Perugia, CamerinoPerugia, Venturieri, ChurchUmbria, MarcheTogether with Pepoli and Beltoft, he hostilely re-enters Perugian territory; he extorts Cerqueto, Papiano, and Spina Nuova. Soon he falls ill and reconciles with the Perugians. He enters Perugia for treatment; he is received with all honors. Once healed, he moves to the advantage of the same Perugians, confronting some small companies of mercenaries that are infesting the countryside. He curbs their plundering and drives the mercenaries from the territory. The compensation agreed upon with the commune is 500 florins. He is enlisted by Rodolfo and Gentile da Varano, whom Conte da Carrara has deprived of Penna San Giovanni: he is defeated nearby by the Papal forces.
Oct.ChurchAscoli PicenoMarcheHe is in Fabriano, where he consents to the marriage of his ten-year-old son, Giovanni Aretino, with the nine-year-old Piccarda da Gubbio: witnesses to the act are the lord of the city Guido Chiavelli, that of Sassoferrato Giovanni di Sassoferrato, and that of Matelica Guido di Matelica, charged with estimating the bride’s dowry. He has the opportunity to travel to Matelica. He goes onto the payroll of Pope Urban VI (papa Urbano VI); he assaults Ascoli Piceno in vain.
Dec.MarcheDefending Fermo with 500 horsemen: the inhabitants refuse to let him enter the city.
1386
Jan.Comp. venturaSienaTuscanyHe raids the Sienese territory with the Bretons. He is handed 2,550 florins.
Feb. – Mar.CamerinoVaranoMarcheHe serves under Gentile and Berardo da Varano. With Grasso da Imola, he devastates the territory of Tolentino to the detriment of Gentile and Rodolfo da Varano. In mid-March, he is hired in Camerino by the Florentines through Pietramala.
Apr. – Aug.Comp. ventura, Florence

Comp. ventura
Fermo, Urbino

San Severino Marche
Umbria, MarcheHe harasses the territory of Fermo with various pretexts; he sets up posts at Montegranaro and San Giusto; he raids the neighboring countryside. He reaches Camerino; leaves the city and heads towards Gubbio with 1,000 horsemen and 300 infantrymen to fight Antonio, the Count of Urbino Montefeltro. He assists Onofrio and Roberto Smeducci in seizing the fortress of San Severino Marche at the expense of their relatives Smeduccio and Bartolomeo Smeducci. He places part of his militias inside it, while with the rest of the company he begins to extort the neighboring territory in order to provide supplies for his troops. In August, the Perugians officially recognize his annual provision of 500 florins, and he is granted their citizenship.
Sept.ChurchAscoli PicenoMarcheHe is hired by the Papal forces and the league of Marche cities composed of Fermo, Ancona, and Recanati; he raids again in the Ascoli region because the inhabitants do not want to recognize the payment of a ransom.
Oct.PerugiaComp. venturaUmbriaHe rushes to aid the Perugians, threatened by the company of Giovanni Acuto and the Michelotti: he puts the adversaries to flight. He returns to the Marche region.
Nov.ChurchFermo500 cavalryMarcheHe is confronted by Grasso da Imola and Nello da Camerino. They hinder him with 400 horses; the action at Panicale fragments into numerous skirmishes without result. He retreats to Recanati.
Dec.MarcheHe raids the territory of Ascoli Piceno with 500 horsemen. He passes threateningly under the walls of Fermo and also plunders that countryside.
1387
Mar.ChurchAnjouMarcheUrban VI (Urbano VI) sends him to Apulia to fight the troops of Louis of Anjou (Luigi d’Angiò). He is defeated by Bartolomeo Smeducci.
…………ExilesSan Severino MarcheMarcheBartolomeo Smeducci approaches San Severino Marche. Boldrino da Panicale exits the city; he is once again defeated by his rival, with the loss of 100 men. Smeducci returns to San Severino Marche.
Aug.MilanVeronaMarche, UmbriaTogether with Nello da Camerino, he kills Grasso da Imola and occupies Civitanova Marche; he abandons the location and returns to the Perugian territory. Carlo Malatesta, through Pietro di Poggio, convinces him to join the service of Gian Galeazzo Visconti to prevent, along with other condottieri, Bernardo della Sala from reaching the Veronese area to serve in favor of Antonio della Scala to the detriment of the Visconti.
Sept.PerugiaComp. ventura200 lancesUmbriaHe confronts the company of Bretons of Bernardo della Sala and Everardo della Campana, who continue to extort the Perugian territory from their base in Cannara. He is unable to dislodge the adversaries from the fortresses in which they have barricaded themselves.
Oct.Comp. venturaFermo150 cavalryMarcheHe roams the Fermo area with 150 horses between the capital and Monte Urano; the action ends with the killing of Matteo da Furco and the raiding of 200 oxen and 600 sheep stolen from the settlers.
Nov.Church, PerugiaOrsini, Comp. ventura200 lancesUmbriaHe is still in Umbria to combat Niccolò Orsini, who has seized Terni and Narni. He also has the opportunity to confront Bernardo della Sala, Everardo della Campana, and Guido d’Asciano on behalf of the Perugians.
Dec.SienaFarneseTuscany, MarcheHe is led with 25 lances by the Sienese to aid the Montemarte, engaged in a conflict with the Farnese and the da Baschi. He returns to the Marche region.
1388
Jan.Comp. venturaSan Severino MarcheMarcheHe enters San Severino Marche by treaty; there he captures Bartolomeo and Smeduccio Smeducci.
Feb. – Mar.Comp. venturaAnconaMarcheHe attempts to take control through treaty also of the castle of Massignano: the plot is foiled and those responsible for its custody are punished.
Apr.ChurchFermoMarcheHe takes several prisoners in the territory of Fermo where he also raids much livestock. He is spotted in Matelica; there, he facilitates an agreement among the various members of the Smeducci family aimed at liberating Bartolomeo. The latter fictitiously sells him Apiro and Ficano for 10,000 florins. Despite previous agreements, Panicale has no intention of returning the two centers; he surrenders the first locality to the papal chamberlain and retains lordship of the second. He enters Montegranaro and Monte San Giusto, pushed there by Marco Zeno (Marco da Montegranaro), intent on recovering the lordship of the first locality. He repeatedly clashes with Giovanni Tedesco da Pietramala.
SpringUmbriaHe returns to Umbria. The Sienese turn to Bartolomeo da Pietramala in order to hire him.
Sept.MarcheThanks to Giovanni Tedesco da Pietramala, he reconciles with Fermo.
Oct.UmbriaHe makes a brief incursion into Umbria. He imprisons some citizens of Bettona: the Perugians press him, through Crispolto Crispolti, to secure their release. He is given money, frees the prisoners, and departs from the territory.
Nov.SienaFlorenceTuscanyHe is brought in by the Sienese in order to respond to the threats of the Florentines.
Dec.Comp. venturaChurchMarcheHe finds himself in conflict with the Rector of the Marca, Andrea Tomacelli. He is confronted by Corrado di Altinberg.
1389
Jan.ChurchFermoMarcheHe renews his contract with the Papal State and the communities of the Marches through Guido Chiavelli, Roberto da San Severino, and Cardinal Andrea Bontempi. Fermo, a commune with which Panicale has long been in contention, also participates in the alliance. He is wounded in the city square by the Umbrian condottiero Nanno da San Giusto, who is destined for the podesteria (a type of governance or magistracy) of Fermo. Boldrino da Panicale becomes even more harsh with the inhabitants and presents himself under their walls. He soon understands that his initiative cannot bear fruit.
Mar.ChurchAscoli PicenoMarcheHe leads a raid in the Tronto Valley.
Apr.MarcheHe obtains Arquata del Tronto through a treaty, which is granted to him as a fief by the pontiffs. He besieges Ascoli Piceno.
…………ChurchHe confronts the Antidisio who, instigated by the inhabitants of Sarnano, is desolating the nearby countryside with his company. He takes custody of the Brunforte fortress; from this, he ventures out to plunder the countryside of Sarnano. The inhabitants of Massignano rebel against Ancona and seek his help. The request goes unanswered; nonetheless, the raids of the Panicale in that territory continue.
JulyChurchSarnano, AnconaMarcheHe allies with Corrado Lando, who has invaded the Fermo area with his company; together with the German condottiero, they threaten Fermo and Camerino. They are opposed by Gentile da Varano, Ceccolo Broglia, Brandolino Brandolini, Giovanni Tedesco da Pietramala, and Biordo dei Michelotti. The Panicale, with 40 horses, raids the Fermo area, seizes many oxen, and captures 12 men whose ears are cut off: he also threatens them with death because the commune of Fermo does not recognize the bounty he imposed. He falls from his mount and is seriously injured. At the entreaty of his confessor and the bishop of Fermo, he frees the unfortunate men; ultimately, the cardinal legate intervenes and establishes a two-month truce between the parties.
Sept.MilanFlorence200 lancesTuscanyHe is sent by the Count of Virtù, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, to the Sienese area with Ceccolo Broglia and Brandolino Brandolini to counteract the Florentines in Tuscany.
1390
Apr.MarcheAt the end of the month, he signs on behalf of the lands controlled by the Rector of the Marca, Cardinal Andrea Bontempi (Macerata, Osimo, Recanati, Castelfidardo, Montesanto (Potenza Picena), Montelupone, Civitanova Marche, Montecasuario, Morrovalle, Montolmo (Corridonia), Montemilone (Pollenza), Montefano, Montecchio (Treia), Montecassiano, Appignano, Filottrano, Staffolo, Apiro, and Domo with Ancona and its associates.
MayPerugiaExilesUmbriaHe besieges Michelotto dei Michelotti in Agello and forces him to surrender under terms: 300 florins are handed over, derived from the ransoms of 12 defenders who have made an agreement with the Panicale to spare their lives.
JulyMid-month, Cardinal Bontempi dies. Effectively, the true protector of the Umbrian condottiero disappears.
Oct. – Nov.Comp. venturaAnconaMarcheThe new Pope, Boniface IX, reapproaches the Anconetans and sends his brother, Andrea Tomacelli, the new Rector of the Marca, to bring peace to the province. Boldrino da Panicale obstructs the plan and incites the faction hostile to the Papal States.
Dec.ChurchMarchePeace with the Anconetans is achieved. Boldrino da Panicale is reconfirmed as the general captain of the Papal troops; furthermore, his command for one year and a monthly provision of 100 ducats are recognized.
1391
Jan.ChurchHe enters Spoleto with Ugolino Trinci, to the detriment of the partisans of the antipope Clement VII; he besieges the castle with trebuchets and bombards day and night. The people of Macerata grant him 100 florins to deter him from his raids in their territory.
Feb.ChurchAntipopeUmbriaAt the end of the month, in the parliament of Macerata, the Rector of the Marca, Andrea Tomacelli, feigns compliance with the urgings of the Panicale; he proposes the imposition of a new tax to meet his demands for money. Ancona refuses to pay the tribute as it is considered a concession; the Montefeltro, Gentile da Varano, the Simonetti of Jesi, Benuttino Cima of Cingoli, and the Buscareto also agree with this stance.
Mar.Boniface IX urges the inhabitants of Fermo to provide assistance to Tomacelli against the threats from Panicale’s company.
Apr.Comp. venturaChurchMarcheHe continues to harass the Maceratese area. He is spotted in Ficano (Poggio San Vicino) and in Domo.
JuneMarcheHe is invited by Tomacelli to Macerata for a banquet. He leaves the castle of Ficano with 20 horses to attend the meeting: during the meal, while the guests are washing their hands, the Marquis of the Marca orders his killing. Boldrino da Panicale is mortally wounded; he is buried in the city. Two years later, soldiers, once part of his company, under the orders of his son Giovanni Aretino and harboring animosity towards Tomacelli, devastate the province. His corpse, returned by the inhabitants of Macerata to the adventurers, is embalmed and placed in a chest where it is preserved for three years; even the war councils of this new company, formed upon his death, are held in front of his coffin. The body, exhumed, is taken to Panicale. According to another source, Boldrino is killed near Macerata by Bartolomeo Smeducci.
Biography by Giuseppe Orsini. Recalled by Lorenzo Spirito in “Lament of Subjugated Perugia”. Thanks to numerous victories obtained for Perugia, Boldrino, from Panicale, was gifted the keys to the city. The episode is depicted on a large canvas painted by the Marche painter Mariano Piervittori, housed in the Cesare Caporali theater in Panicale (the condottiero is depicted receiving the keys of the city). Also in Panicale, his residence was located in front of the Collegiate Church dedicated to Saint Michael the Archangel. A portrait of him is preserved in Panicale in the local Municipal Art Gallery. His fresco in the Baglioni Palace in Perugia. Also in that city, in the Donini Palace (Fiume room), his portrait and that of Niccolò Piccinino, by Salvatore Fiume, are displayed. Corintius Corsetti (1626) wrote “Laudatio in Panicalis oppidi Perusini honorem texta”. Filippo Alberti wrote a eulogy about him. Gino Franceschini has also published a brief biography of him in the Bulletin of the Deputation of Homeland History for Umbria. Boldrino da Panicale is also the protagonist of a novel by Tommaso di Saluzzo where he appears with the epithet “Baudrin le meurtrier” and in 2016 of a comic story edited by Marco Vergoni (board drawer) and Daniele Giovagnoni (text author). His coat of arms consists of two shields of different shapes, one attached to the other. In the larger shield is a table with three bread loaves; in the smaller one, a horseshoe with a nail and, in the outer corner, the initial B., for Boldrino. He marries Laria or Ilaria di Pietruccio.

Sources

-“Un umbro che non fu mai un grande capitano, ma la cui vita errabonda ed irrequieta fu tipica di alcuni professionisti militari dell’Italia centrale. La sua compagnia non contò mai più di duecento lance e passò di continuo dal servizio di Siena o di Perugia a quello dei papi e di diversi signori romagnoli. Boldrino aveva fama di sleale, ma poiché comandava una buona compagnia che gli era fedele poté sempre trovare in quell’area ribollente di conflitti chi ne richiedesse i servizi.” MALLETT

-“E l’altro che di fama ogn’altro avanza,/ Boldrin che fè tremar poggi e pianure;/ E morto acquistò terre in abbondanza.” Cambino Aretino riportato da FABRETTI

-“Io son quel degno capitan famoso/Boldrin nell’armi avventurato e forte,/In tutti i fatti miei vittorioso/E per mio senno e per celeste sorte;/E fu sì caro il mio stil valoroso/Che le mie genti dopo la mia morte/Tre anni il corpo a trionfo portarno/tanto che la mia morte vendicarno.” Da un epitaffio del Matarazzo, riportato da FABRETTI, sotto il suo ritratto un tempo collocato a Perugia nel palazzo di Braccio Baglioni.

-“E tornami a memoria di colui,/ Che fece assai gran prove per la Marca,/ Dico il Boldrin ch’amò me, com’io lui/ Et fu dall’honor suo sua gente carca/ Sì che tre anni guerreggiando intorno/ Il portar morto chiuso d’entro un’arca.” SPIRITO

-“Boldrino, dalla vittoria sempre favorito, fu il flagellator della Marca, lo sgomento delle milizie italiane e straniere, e la vittima d’un tradimento preparato dal tempo e permesso dallo sdegno di Dio. Tempra robusta, forme atletiche, sguardo severo, prontezza d’animo maravigliosa, temerario coraggio e avidità di gloria presagivano in Boldrino un Capitano di alta rinomanza, un uomo da portare lo scoraggiamento in qualunque masnada d’avventurieri…Boldrino panicalese/ Fra i corrotti capitani/ corrottissimo/ emulò lo straniero/ nel far piangere l’Italia:/ il Piceno insanguinato gridò sovente/ infamia al suo nome./Fu morto a tradimento/ perché gli uomini sappiano/ non esser fra l’armi securo/ il delitto.” FABRETTI

-“Armorum ductor, vir pravus et crudelis.” ANNALES FOROLIVIENSES

-“Grandissimo Capitano..Era..il più temuto soldato di quei tempi.” PELLINI

-“Feroce uomo e di animo avverso agli anconetani.” PERUZZI

-“In primis Romanae ducis, omnium es aetate clarissimi.” CRIVELLI

-“Qui tunc in Italia clarus, illustrisque militiae imperator esset.” EGNAZIO

-“Boldrin da Panical, el qual procede/ de sì vil pianta..” SANTI

-“Assai pessimo homo e de condiçione prava, de naçione prava e vilissimo ultra modo..Fo ditto che el ditto Boldrino fo tagliado in più pieççi. E per la ditta morte uno figliolo del ditto Boldrino cavalcò con molte zente per lo tereno de Maçierata e pigliando multe contadini fè sovra loro aspera vendetta del padre.” G. DI M. PEDRINO

-“Buldrinus Panicaliae pontificiae militiae sceptra tenebat, eo nemo ducum felicior fuit: num dum viveret acie semper victor, etiam post mortem, saepius victoriis triumphisq. militum suorum interfuit, ii siquidem ducis sui cadaver exsicatum, conditumque aromatibus in feretro circumferebant, cum neminem, qui succederet militiae imperio dignum putarent; tendebat et praetorium non secum, ac vivo, et circumpositis vexillis belli texera petebatur, ita ut mortui consiliis quadam sorte exceptis feliciter uterentur.” CORNAZZANO

-“Famoso venturiere di quell’età.” CRISTOFANI

-“Famoso capitano del suo tempo.” P. BONOLI

-“Tanto per la sua barbarie e liberalità accrebbe il suo potere che divenne fra breve capitano di oste numerosa e fu podestà di molte cittadi e castella. Non fuvvi in Italia giammai uomo di lui più temuto..Fu della marca d’Ancona e detto Baudrin le meurtier.” PORRO LAMBERTENGHI

-“Uomo bellicoso amatissimo e quasi idolatrato da suoi gregari.” ANGELITA

-“Uno de’ più acclamati guerrieri in vita e in morte del suo secolo.” COMPAGNONI

-“Dalla coltura de’ campi passato all’assassinio, dall’assassinio alla milizia, signoreggiava alcune terre dell’Umbria, e tirava provvigione dal papa…(Alla consegna del suo cadavere da parte degli abitanti di Macerata alle truppe che hanno militato ai suoi ordini) Avresti pertanto veduto nel dì stabilito spalancarsi le porte di Macerata, uscirne a processione il popolo, gli oratori delle città amiche, il clero e le matrone scarmigliate e piangenti colle spoglie del condottiero, la compagnia di fuori riaverle in gran pompa e non senza mestizia. Quindi le chiusero in una preziosa bara, e questa per lungo tempo servì come d’insegna alle ricordevoli soldatesche.” RICOTTI

-“Uomo, che godea tra i suoi soldati di tale riputazione che, morto, ne imbalsamarono il cadavere, conducendolo seco in tutte le imprese di guerra, e inalzandogli ogni volta nell’accampamento una tenda distinta; poiché consideravano ancor la sua salma, come l’arra migliore della vittoria.” VON PLATEN

-“Scaltro, opportunista senza scrupoli, naturalmente aggressivo. Si dette al mestiere delle armi e si mostrò subito sensibile al guadagno, applicando alla lettera il principio di cambiar padrone ogni volta che ne vedesse la convenienza, passando al soldo temporaneo del miglior offerente.” GAZZARA

-“Fierissimo condottiero, dalla vittoria sempre coronato, fausto agli amici, infausto ai nemici. Due metri e dieci per centotrenta chili, capitano di ventura, feroce e spietato, di basso lignaggio portato dal proprio valore ai Supremi comando dell’armi si rese formidabile ai Nemici, giocondo agli amici e di tanta autorità, ed estimazione per tutti. Fu Boldrino onesto, osservatore delle leggi, pronto a soccorrere i buoni, tutto amor per la Patria (Perugia), e devotissimo al Pontefice.”www.medioevoinumbria.it>condottieri>boldri.. 

-“Uno dei personaggi meno raccomandabili nel panorama dei condottieri, per quanto circonfuso di un alone di feroce eroismo.” CREVATIN

-“Omnium ea aetate clarissimus.” MINUTI

-“Secondo lo storico Fabretti aveva una “tempra robusta e forme atletiche”, e si dice che avesse un’altezza davvero notevole per la sua epoca tra il 195 e i 210 cm., e che questo bastasse a terrorizzare i nemici. Aveva anche uno sguardo severo, prontezza d’animo, coraggio e avidità di gloria..Fu un feroce capitano ed il solo pronunciare il suo nome incuteva terrore..La sua ferocia gli valse il seguente epitaffio:”Boldrino/fierissimo condottiero/ dalla vittoria sempre coronato/fausto agli amici/infausto ai nemici.” L’iscrizione si può leggere tutt’oggi sulla targa commemorativa affissa sulla parete della sua casa in piazza San Michele Arcangelo, a Panicale. Fu uomo prezzolato che si schierava con il migliore offerente, tanto da trovarsi spesso contro una città o un signore che aveva aiutato la volta precedente. Una di queste occasioni è raffigurata nel sipario del Teatro Caporali di Panicale. Il telone, dipinto dal Piervittori nel 18835, raffigura infatti il Priore di perugia che dona le chiavi della città a Boldrino per ringraziarlo di averli salvati da una scorreria di Bretoni.”www.terredelperugino.it>terribile-boldrino-pani..

-“Dalla coltura de’ campi passato all’assassinio, dall’assassinio alla milizia, signoreggiava alcune terre dell’Umbria, e tirava provvigione dal papa.” RICOTTI

-“Capitaneus multe gentis armorum multa opera fecisset un servitium ecclesie.” SANT’ANTONINO

-“Era feroce, crudele, senza pietà con i nemici. Era avido per sé e per i suoi soldati. Quando si presentava l’occasione, non disdegnava di opprimere e depredare popolazioni inermi…Boldrino fu per lungo tempo capitano generale delle truppe pontificie, e ottenne condotte da Perugia, Siena, Firenze, Milano. A turno, le principali potenze d’Italia si avvalsero della sua maestria nell’arte della guerra..per un quindicennio..fu condottiero pressoché invincibile. Primeggiò in strategia militare, astuzia, spregiudicatezza e intelligenza tattica. Era molto abile nell’individuare prontamente i punti deboli del nemico e sfruttarli per volgere le sorti del conflitto a suo favore. Era ammirato da tutti i suoi soldati per l’irruenza che metteva negli scontri diretti e per l’abile guida in battaglia. Di lui i militi avevano pina fiducia e lo ripagavano sempre con una cieca obbedienza.” TABORCHI

SPECIFIC BIOGRAPHIES

-G. Franceschini. Boldrino da Panicale (1331?-1391)

-L. Taborchi. Boldrino da Panicale. Storia di un capitano di ventura

Topics: Boldrino da Panicale military career, Boldrino da Panicale notable battles, Italian condottieri of the 14th century, Farmer turned military leader in medieval Italy, Medieval military leaders in Italy, Boldrino’s revenge saga in 14th century Italy

Featured image: festivaldelmedioevo.it

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Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani è l'autore del sito Condottieri di ventura.