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Biographical notes on War Captains and Mercenary Leaders operating in Italy between 1330 and 1550

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The Life and Times of Giampaolo Baglioni

Italian CondottieriThe Life and Times of Giampaolo Baglioni

A skilled, prudent, and valiant condottiero, he was the last representative along with his brother-in-law, **Bartolomeo d'Alviano**, of the Braccio school of warfare. A courageous captain and wise counselor according to Venetian sources. Conversely, he was one of the historical figures most vehemently criticized by Tuscan sources, such as Machiavelli and Guicciardini, due to his flaws and betrayals. Finally, despite violent disputes with relatives over power in Perugia, he was appreciated by the people of Perugia.

Indice delle Signorie dei Condottieri: ABCDEFGIJLMNOPQRSTUVZ

The Dual Perspectives on Giampaolo Baglioni

Giampaolo Baglioni of Perugia. Count of Bettona, lord of Perugia and Bettona. Brother of Simonetto Baglioni and Orazio Baglioni; father of Malatesta Baglioni and Orazio Baglioni; cousin of Gentile Baglioni, Astorre Baglioni, and Morgante Baglioni; brother-in-law of Bartolomeo d’Alviano and Camillo Vitelli; uncle of Baldassarre Signorelli, Ludovico Euffreducci, Ottaviano Signorelli. Father-in-law of Camillo Orsini, son-in-law of Jacopo Conti.

Born: 1471, July
Death: 1520, June

Year, monthState, Comp. venturaOpponentConductActivity AreaActions taken and other salient facts
……….As a child, he pursued his studies in Perugia with excellent tutors. As an adult, he frequented the Perugian studio, though not as a student.
……….He served in the company of Virginio Orsini.
Oct.UmbriaHe joined his father Rodolfo and his brother Troilo in street skirmishes against the Oddi family. Their rivals were forced to leave Perugia and take refuge in Castiglione del Lago.
Apr.LazioHe accompanied his father Rodolfo to Rome, where Rodolfo was summoned by Pope Innocent VIII.
Nov.UmbriaHe married Ippolita Conti, daughter of Jacopo Conti, in Spello. He then moved with his wife to Bastia Umbra.
Jan.UmbriaHe attended the funeral of the bishop of Casciano, who was killed in Perugia.
……….PerugiaOddi, FolignoUmbriaHe fought against the Oddi and the people of Foligno. The Savelli family defeated the Perugians at Corciano.
JuneUmbriaHe joined forces with Camillo Vitelli and Paolo Orsini and set fire to Schifanoia, which belonged to Berardino Ranieri. He then went to Ripa and Resena, took control of Civitella Benazzone, which was also set ablaze; he had Battistaccio da Sant’Agata hanged from a tower in Schifanoia. This reinforced the supremacy of the Baglioni family in Perugia.
Mar.UmbriaHe won the first prize in a joust that took place in Perugia.
Aug.LazioAt the end of the month, he attended the ceremonies in Rome organized for the election of Pope Alexander VI.
Nov.PerugiaExilesUmbriaHe entered Bastia Umbra and Assisi with Carlo Baglioni, targeting the local exiles; he pillaged some villages, set fire to the doors of the Church of Saint Francis, and plundered the basilica itself. He stopped at the Monte di Pietà, where he was given a certain amount of wheat. A ransom was imposed on the prisoners; they were fed human flesh cooked in the usual way. The pillage ended two days later with the arrival of Niccolò Orsini. Throughout the year, he served as a commissioner tasked with overseeing criminal and civil cases. His colleagues on this occasion included Morgante Baglioni and Rodolfo Signorelli.
1493FlorenceIn the service of Piero de’ Medici, he lost his command with the advance of Charles VIII‘s French forces in Tuscany. He returned to Perugia to defend the city alongside his relatives, Morgante and Astorre.
…………PerugiaOddi, AssisiUmbriaHe abandoned the pay of the Florentines in order to return to Perugia. Along with Morgante and Astorre Baglioni, he confronted the Oddi, Jacopo Fiumi, and Alessandro da Sterpeto, who had returned to Assisi with the help of the Duke of Urbino, Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, and the Lord of Pesaro, Giovanni Sforza. He soon reached an agreement with the inhabitants and the papal commissioner.
AutumnTodiChiaravalleUmbriaTogether with his cousin Astorre, he was involved in the defense of Todi, providing aid to Ludovico and Giovanni degli Atti in their conflict with the Chiaravalle family (Vittorio, Altobello, Pier Bernardo, and Girolamo da Canale), who were in turn supported by the Colonna family. He repelled the opponents; however, he entered into a dispute with his allies over the capture of Ettore da Canale, who was taken prisoner by his men. Following this, he left the city.
Nov.UmbriaTogether with his relatives Astorre, Gismondo, Simonetto, and Grifone Baglioni, he ambushed and robbed a group of French soldiers at Mercatello in Monte Vibiano Vecchio. The soldiers were on their way south, transporting money intended for the salaries of some officials.
SpringFlorence, PerugiaOddiTuscany, UmbriaHe returns to Perugia. With his cousin Astorre, leading 800 men comprised of infantry and cavalry, he moves towards Passignano sul Trasimeno. The opposing militias are overwhelmed with many losses, including deaths and prisoners. The latter are spared their lives by his cousin. Subsequently, with his brother Simonetto and Astorre, he reclaims all the lands, fortresses, and castles previously occupied by the Oddi.
JunePerugiaOddiUmbriaHe lays siege to Fratta Todina with Astorre Baglioni. He is wounded in a clash.
JulyFranceVenice, MilanEmiliaHe takes part in the Battle of Fornovo. He is taken prisoner.
Sept.PerugiaOddi, FolignoUmbriaOnce released, he again fights the Oddi on the plains of Missiano; he forces them to retreat to Corciano. Antonello Savelli and Niccolò Oddi dare not face him in open field despite their numerical superiority. The attack occurs at night the following day. The exiles penetrate Perugia through the Porta del Piscinello and the Porta di Sant’Andrea. They initially spread through the center, encountering resistance from his relatives Astorre, Simonetto, and Carlo. The defenses previously prepared by the Baglioni (streets leading to the square barricaded with chains) prevent Troilo Savelli‘s cavalry from continuing their march. The opponents are forced to fall back towards Corciano. A massacre ensues; the number of prisoners is also great. Many inhabitants of Corciano and Foligno are hanged on the walls of Corciano castle; others are thrown from the windows of the Palazzo dei Priori in Perugia. Having entered Corciano, he seizes a red flag from Foligno: as a reward, he is granted a mount previously owned by Troilo Savelli. He allows his men to rest and, still with Astorre, heads towards Foligno; he bombards the castle of Gualdo Cattaneo. He is joined by Virginio Orsini; he hands over money to this commander to gain his support for the assault on the fortress.
…………PerugiaOrvietoUmbria, TuscanyHe enters Cetona and Ficulle with his supporters, acting in coordination with the lord of Siena, Pandolfo Petrucci. He also occupies Fabro and Selci. Cesario Bandini, the lord of these places, is killed while fighting the inhabitants of Orvieto. Finally, the Orvietans are repelled by the Papal forces, who recapture Fabro and Selci and execute the assassins of Bandini.
…………FlorencePisaTuscanyIn Cortona with Ranuccio da Marciano and the Duke of Urbino, Guidobaldo da Montefeltro.
MayTuscanyHe is spotted between Pontedera and Bientina. He is sent to aid Buti.
SummerPerugiaAssisiUmbriaHe again attacks in Assisi, targeting the Count of Sterpeto, Jacopo Fiumi. He is invited to a city gate to begin negotiations but is ambushed. He is saved by Carlo Baglioni, who sends Gonzaio da Perugia to support him. In the clash, 60 inhabitants are killed, others are captured and hanged. The siege resumes, and Assisi is forced to surrender.
…………SpoletoTerniUmbriaHe joins forces with Bartolomeo d’Alviano to attack Terni.
Mar.50 lancesTuscanyThe Florentines grant him an annual allowance of 1200 ducats.
MayOrsiniColonnaUmbriaWith Bartolomeo d’Alviano, Paolo Orsini, and Ferrante Farnese, he attacks the Chiaravalle; they seize the castles of Amelia. He conquers Penna in Teverina. At the end of the month, he is again hired by the Florentines to counter the Pisans.
JulyFlorencePisaUmbria, TuscanyAt the castle of Piscine, he signs an act of solemn pacification with the commune of Perugia and the Duke of Urbino.
Aug.TuscanyAlongside the lord of Siena, Pandolfo Petrucci, he prevents the Venetian captains Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Paolo Orsini, Astorre Baglioni, and Pandolfo Malatesta from joining forces with the troops of Piero dei Medici. He occupies the tower of Beccati Quello, located on the border of the Perugian state with the Val di Chiana; he also has the bridge at Butarone demolished, situated at the boundary with Siena, to prevent the entrance of Venetian troops into that area. At the end of the month, he is reported to be in Cascina. He presses the Florentines to increase his pay.
Sept.TuscanyIn Poggibonsi; with Jacopo d’Appiano and 300 men-at-arms, he moves to the Mugello; he liberates the fortress of Castiglione, near Marradi, from the siege laid by the opponents.
Oct.Romagna, TuscanyHe moves to Val di Bagno. He returns towards Bibbiena when he is informed that the city has been conquered by Bartolomeo d’Alviano.
Nov.TuscanyWith 60 mounted crossbowmen, he targets Franzola; he is repelled by Carlo Orsini and Astorre Baglioni. He then heads to Poppi and takes over its defense with Jacopo d’Appiano (130 men-at-arms and 60 mounted crossbowmen).
Dec.TuscanyHe joins forces with Paolo Vitelli and lays siege to Bibbiena. Near Poppi, he complains to other condottieri about the delay in their payments.
Jan.Umbria, TuscanyHe gathers infantry in Perugia to lead to Casentino. By mid-month, he is in Borgo San Sepolcro (Sansepolcro) with 200 infantry and 60 men-at-arms: he faces the enemies without excessive commitment and is accused of his inactivity by Gaspare da San Severino.
Feb.TuscanyHe besieges Bibbiena with 100 men-at-arms, 100 light cavalry, and 1000 infantry, of whom 500 are provided by Paolo Vitelli.
…………TuscanyHe is invited by the exiles of Siena to join them in expelling the lord of the city, Pandolfo Petrucci. He refuses the offer; instead, he secretly informs Petrucci about the movements of his adversaries.
SummerTuscanyHe asks Pandolfo Petrucci for a command in the event of a discharge by the Florentines.
Dec.ChurchForlìRomagnaIn the service of Cesare Borgia. Along with Onorio Savelli, Vitellozzo Vitelli, and Zitolo da Perugia, he takes part in the attack against Imola, which is defended by Taddeo della Volpe. The locality surrenders in a short time.
…………Siena50 lancesTuscanyHe is led by the Sienese on the condition that his men-at-arms remain guarding Montepulciano.
JunePerugiaTodiUmbriaHe clashes with 250 cavalry against the inhabitants of Todi after their raid near Pantalla. He meets with Vitellozzo Vitelli; he returns to Perugia for the wedding of his cousin Astorre.
JulyPerugiaBaglioniUmbriaHe is in the palace of Guido Baglioni when Grifone Baglioni and then Carlo Baglioni enter his room at night to kill him while he is sleeping. One of his men-at-arms, Maraglia, confronts the conspirators and gives him time to escape through a dormer window; he crawls from one roof to another, manages to enter the residence of some foreign students of the local university at Porta San Biagio. He is dressed as a scholar and is escorted to Porta Borgna (Porta Eburnea) by two students; from there, he walks to the Stone Bridge near his brother Troilo; he takes a horse and reaches Marsciano. He contacts Vitello Vitelli, who is located a few kilometers away at Pantalla. The next day, he gathers his supporters at San Martino in Campo, a castle near the Tiber; he collects 800 cavalry and many infantry at Cannara, Bastia Umbra, Castelbuono, and Lucigno. He joins forces with Gentile Baglioni; he first opens the Porta di San Pietro and then a second gate; enters Perugia and calls his supporters to rally. He beheads a man who had stolen the mount of the deceased Astorre Baglioni, tries to kill Giovan Francesco della Cornia; at Sant’Ercolano, near the hospital of Misericordia, he encounters Grifone Baglioni who is likely killed by his cousin Gentile. The conspirators Carlo Baglioni and Girolamo dalla Penna flee towards Porta Sant’Angelo. Many enemies are killed. Giampaolo Baglioni orders the burning of the houses in the village of Sant’Angelo. He enters the cathedral of San Lorenzo where 200 peasants and craftsmen recruited by Girolamo della Penna have taken refuge. The door of the church is set on fire, and all those inside are massacred. He goes to Prepo where Carlo Baglioni has stopped; not finding him, he returns to Perugia and takes possession of a palace of Grifone Baglioni. In the following days, he orders the walls of Pietramelina, Civitella Benazzone, Montelabbate, Ponte Pattoli, and other castles to be demolished, devastating the countryside. Within a few days, 28 gentlemen are killed in Perugia, including those assassinated by the conspirators and exiles. Vitellozzo Vitelli, Rodolfo Signorelli, and other allies come to his aid, joining him at San Martino in Campo.
Aug.ChurchChiaravalleUmbriaHe supports Cesare Borgia with more than 5000 Perugini in a police action against Altobello and Girolamo da Canale who, with few men, are bloodying the region.
Sept.Church, SienaViterboCaptain General of 100 lancesUmbria, LazioTogether with Vitellozzo Vitelli and Paolo Orsini (300 men-at-arms, 1000 infantry, and 10000 drafted soldiers), he captures and sacks the castle of Acquasparta following an intense artillery fire that lasted four days. In the clash, Altobello di Canale along with the Ghibellines of Todi, and another 80 men are killed. The body of Canale is laid out on a butcher’s table; his body is chopped up to be eaten by his factional enemies. In this event, Baglioni tries to save the lives of the defeated except to confiscate their goods. During the same period, with Paolo Orsini, he moves on Amelia and with other captains targets Viterbo to expel the sons of Giovanni Gatti and his sister Ippolita from the locality. He exploits his sister’s good faith to introduce some of his soldiers into the fortress. He restores power in the city to the Maganzesi, who are favorable to the Orsini and opposed to the Colonna. Many houses of both factions are plundered on this occasion. The booty amounts to more than 30000 ducats. Of this sum, 12000 ducats are due to him. In various clashes, 500 people are killed. His men fight several times with the same allies over the division of the booty, causing many Orsini supporters to abandon them due to their greed. Baglioni leaves Viterbo and goes to Rome where Pope Alexander VI gives him money to organize his company. Furthermore, the pope issues a brief that prohibits subjects of the Papal States from offering hospitality to Carlo Baglioni, Girolamo della Penna, and Giulio Cesare da Perugia. During the same days, Baglioni refuses a command offered by the Florentines, preferring to serve the Sienese who recognize him as the commander of their troops. Finally, he is found in Montefalco with Vitelli and Orsini. In Foligno.
Oct.Umbria, MarcheAt Gualdo Cattaneo and Nocera Umbra with Cesare Borgia. He returns to Rome to meet with the Pope (and ask him for more money) along with Vitellozzo Vitelli, Paolo Orsini, and Giulio Orsini. He moves to Fano, a territory controlled by the Duke of Urbino, with 500 infantry. During the march, Spanish troops serving the pontifical forces camp between Deruta, Torgiano, and Bettona, lands controlled by the Baglionis. These militias, in their passage, strip the local inhabitants of their goods, destroy and contaminate with their excrement all kinds of food supplies and public waters. Cesare Borgia does not intervene. The Perugian soldiers, in revenge, secretly kill all the Spanish soldiers who are found isolated from their units. Many of these are bound and thrown into the Tiber.
Nov.ChurchFaenzaRomagnaHe joins Duke Valentino in Rimini and Cesena; along with Giulio Orsini, Paolo Orsini, Dionigi Naldi, and Vitellozzo Vitelli, he reaches Forlì and moves to the siege of Faenza. After ten days, he is forced to cease operations due to the resistance encountered and adverse weather conditions. The cold and snow block all roads causing a shortage of food and forage. There is also a scarcity of wine, which is essential for boosting the morale of the soldiers. Tension also rises among the pontificals due to frequent fights between the Perugian mercenaries and the Spanish ones, caused by the recent raids conducted by the latter in Umbria. Baglioni goes to Forlì where he attends a muster of his men.
Dec.PerugiaBaglioniRomagna, Marche, UmbriaAt Mondaino and Montefiore Conca with Carlo Orsini; he asks for permission to return to Perugia. He meets with Giovanni della Rovere in Senigallia and with the Montefeltro in Urbino: the Duke promises him not to provide asylum to the Perugian exiles anymore. On his return to Umbria, Baglioni captures Giulio Cesare da Perugia and releases him after having lunch with him; near Spello, he also captures Cesare Crispolti who is about to join Carlo Baglioni and Girolamo dalla Penna in Bettona. He attacks his adversaries; the two rivals manage to escape. At the end of the month, his wife Ippolita Conti arrives in Perugia from Graffignano; Rodolfo Baglioni, Camillo Vitelli, Ranuccio da Marciano along with the city’s nobles go out to meet her. Soon he too joins his wife.
Feb.PerugiaFolignoUmbriaHe is attacked on the Apennines by Carlo Baglioni and Girolamo dalla Penna; he encamps at Gualdo Tadino with troops that, in a sign of mourning, are all dressed in black. Joined by 80 light cavalry led by Bandino da Castel della Pieve and 100 men-at-arms from Ercole Bentivoglio, he assaults Foligno. The inhabitants wall up all the gates except the one facing Todi. They send a plea to the pope invoking salvation: to facilitate intervention, several thousand ducats are promised to the Apostolic Chamber.
Mar.UmbriaThe pope intervenes on the advice of the cardinal legate for Umbria, the Spaniard Giacomo Serra. Peace between the parties is concluded in Todi.
Apr.PerugiaExilesUmbriaDue to the snow, he delays the attack on Nocera Umbra, where Carlo Baglioni and Girolamo dalla Penna have taken refuge. He moves toward Gualdo Cattaneo with 800 cavalry and more than 1000 infantry to cut off supply lines to his opponents. He meets Morgante Baglioni in Perugia; returns to Gualdo Cattaneo and sets up camp at Fossato di Vico, which is defended by Ottaviano della Cornia and Cherubino degli Ermanni. Upon hearing that Carlo Baglioni is moving to aid Fossato di Vico, he arranges for Bandino da Castel della Pieve to lay an ambush: 35 prisoners are hanged in front of the town gate. After two days, the exiles, frightened, secretly abandon Fossato di Vico; Baglioni enters it and leaves Giovanni Orso da Montesperelli in charge of its defense. He returns to Gualdo Cattaneo; Morgante Baglioni informs him that the Oddi, with the help of the Florentines, are gathering militias in the territory of Cortona to target Passignano sul Trasimeno.
MayUmbria, LazioLeaving Nocera Umbra, he rides at night to Perugia and, with Morgante Baglioni, without waiting for reinforcements from the Montefeltro and the Sienese, reaches Montecolognola; he organizes his men. He assaults Borghetto, forcing Giulio Cesare da Perugia, Berardo della Cornia, and Ludovico da Marciano to flee. Among the opponents, 250 men including Carlo Oddi are killed; Pompeo Oddi is captured and strangled the same night. Baldassarre di Scipione is also captured. He refuses to hand him over to the Sienese, foregoing the 2000 ducats offered to him. He crosses the Paglia River with 80 cavalry, reaches Sassoferrato, and seizes San Michele in Teverina. Subsequently, he moves at night with a part of the contingent hired for Siena, encamped in the Chiugi, to take over Castel di Piero, a locality near Graffignana in the Viterbo area. It involves an inheritance issue concerning the ownership of some lands. He captures Count Secondo Baglioni and his son Pirro (the future Pirro Colonna) and takes possession of the castle.
JulyChurchNaplesLazioIn Rome with Cesare Borgia and Vitellozzo Vitelli to fight the Aragonese of Naples in support of the French. He leaves the city at the head of 400 infantry wearing the yellow and crimson uniform of Duke Valentino and 100 French lances. The army has Cassino as its rallying point.
Aug.SpoletoTerniCaptain generalUmbriaAt the request of the Pope and the people of Spoleto, he goes to the Terni area. He arrives at San Gemini and Santa Maria di Lauro; he positions his camp near the Church of San Paolo, close to the Nera River, and besieges Terni after having devastated its countryside. Within a few days, the enemies are forced into an agreement and return Cesi to the Spoletans. He moves towards L’Aquila following the fall of Capua into the hands of the French. In the same month, Pope Alexander VI appoints his brother Troilo, protonotary of the cathedral of San Lorenzo in Perugia, as the bishop of the city. For this occasion, 40,000 ducats are collected from the population, of which only a part is paid to the Apostolic Chamber.
Sept.ChurchPiombinoTuscanyHe besieges Piombino with Vitellozzo Vitelli. The lord of the city, Jacopo d’Appiano, is forced to flee to France.
Mar.TuscanyIn Massa in the entourage of Pope Alexander VI along with Vitellozzo Vitelli.
Apr.ExilesOrvietoUmbriaAlongside the Orsini, he reinstates some Guelphs in Orvieto who had previously been expelled.
JuneMediciFlorence, France80 lancesUmbria, TuscanyHe joins Vitellozzo Vitelli to reintroduce Piero dei Medici into Florence. He gathers 60 men-at-arms and 2000 infantry in the Perugino and Val di Chiana; by mid-month, he is between Quarata and Ponte a Giovi facing the Forche (Ponte a Buriano). He confronts the commissioner Antonio Giacomini and stops at Petrognano, in front of the enemy camp located at Castelluccio al Borro (Castelluccio). He enters Arezzo with Fabio Orsini at the head of his company and 500 infantry. He moves the artillery from San Clemente and positions it on three bastion gabions raised in front of the fortress from the side of Porta Calcitrone. He begins the bombardment; on the same day, the bastion is stormed. Immediately afterwards, again with Vitelli, he turns against the castle of Quarata and puts to flight the 200 infantry of the garrison; the two commanders occupy the pass at Ponte a Buriano. Antonio Giacomini is thus forced to retreat to Montevarchi.
JulyTuscanyAt the beginning of the month, along with Vitellozzo Vitelli, he surprises Anghiari; then, via Santa Fiora, he descends on Borgo San Sepolcro (Sansepolcro) which is sacked. Upon hearing that French troops are coming to aid the enemies, he proposes to strengthen the acquired positions; he instigates a rise in Cortona while Vitelli occupies Castiglion Fiorentino. At Castiglion Fibocchi, he repels an attack by the opponents; with the cavalry, he ambushes the Florentines aiming to occupy the castle of Rondine. The enemies retreat in disorder towards Rondine and Laterina; however, Giampaolo Baglioni fails to seize the opportunity. With Vitelli, he continues his advance towards San Giovanni Valdarno and Montevarchi: they are countered by Antonio Giacomini and Lancre who attack him in Castiglion Fibocchi. In the subsequent skirmish, the harquebusiers and mounted crossbowmen of Vitelli particularly distinguish themselves with a new tactic. He encamps with Fabio Orsini at Ponte a Buriano until strong pressure from the King of France on Cesare Borgia, and the latter on him, convinces him to abandon the enterprise. He returns to Arezzo and sets Quarata on fire; he meets with the French commander Imbault Rivoire in the Palazzo dei Signori and retreats towards Cortona and Perugia. Around the same days, he likely orders the poisoning of his cousin Morgante, who is serving with the Florentines.
Aug. – Sept.UmbriaHe retreats to Perugia. He begins to conspire with other commanders against Cesare Borgia. In September, he intercepts a letter from the pope urging Cesare Borgia to capture potential rebels to the Papal States.
Oct. – Nov.Umbria, Marche, RomagnaHe meets at Magione, on Lake Trasimeno, with the Orsini, Vitellozzo Vitelli, Oliverotto da Fermo, Ermes Bentivoglio (representing the Bentivoglio), Ottaviano Fregoso (for the Montefeltro), Guido Pecci, and Antonio da Venafro (on behalf of Pandolfo Petrucci), all enemies of Duke Valentino. Leaving Perugia, he reaches Cagli where he is welcomed as a liberator. A draft agreement reached by the Orsini with Borgia is not accepted; he occupies Camerino on behalf of the da Varano and perpetrates brutal massacres there. He joins Vitelli and Francesco Orsini at Fossombrone; they conquer Gubbio with the Montefeltro: some exiles, such as Girolamo della Staffa, are captured, whom Baglioni has beheaded and quartered in Perugia. He defeats the papal forces at Calmazzo; targets Fano, where he tries in vain to penetrate. Continuing his action, he seizes many castles including Mombaroccio; he besieges Michelotto Coreglia in Pesaro, occupies Monteluro, and camps at the Imperiale. He waits in Fano for the outcome of negotiations that are concluding between the papal forces and the Orsini. While waiting, his men devastate the Rimini area, raiding livestock and setting fire to some farms. The Orsini arrives at the headquarters of the rebel commanders accompanied by the Spaniard Gorvalan. The captains discuss the terms of the agreement in a lonely church in the middle of a meadow near the walls of Cartoceto on the hills west of Fano. The Orsini express satisfaction. Baglioni vigorously rejects the idea of an agreement, Vitelli tiredly yields to the majority’s insistence; Oliverotto da Fermo follows the latter’s example.
Dec.UmbriaAlarmed by concurrent discussions held by papal emissaries with the Perugian exiles, he also signs the reconciliation agreement at Magione. Mid-month, Cesare Borgia summons him to Romagna. Citing alleged health problems, he declines the invitation; instead, he hastily departs for Perugia. Thus, he manages to escape capture and execution, a fate that befalls his allies Vitellozzo Vitelli and Oliverotto da Fermo in Senigallia.
Jan.ChurchPerugiaMarche, Umbria, TuscanyHe retreats to Montalboddo (Ostra) with Fabio Orsini (500 cavalry, 4000/5000 infantry, and many mounted crossbowmen). He is accused of treason. Michelotto Coreglia advances against him with 2000 cavalry. He returns to Perugia; he meets with his relative Gentile and both, noticing the first signs of rebellion in the city, decide to abandon the locality. They leave from Porta Borgna with Gentile, his brother Troilo, and his sons Malatesta and Orazio. They are accompanied by a convoy of mules and wagons carrying their most precious belongings and escorted by 800 cavalry and about 1000 infantry. Giulio Vitelli and Giovanni Rossetto are also part of the group. Carlo Baglioni and the Oddi thus have the chance to return to Perugia. He goes to Fratta Todina; continues towards Lake Trasimeno where the fugitives split up. The Vitellis head for Città della Pieve; Baglioni moves through the Val di Chiana towards Siena after leaving some garrisons at Castiglione del Lago, the fortress of Borghetto, and the tower of Beccati Quello. He also orders the demolition of the only bridge allowing passage through the valley, namely the Butarone bridge. He relocates to Montepulciano.
Feb.TuscanyIn Siena, hosted by Pandolfo Petrucci. Forced to leave this city as well, he escapes an ambush by the light cavalry of Duke Valentino; he arrives in Lucca with 300 cavalry. From there, he pretends to head towards Ravenna to join forces with l’Alviano; instead, he moves with Petrucci towards Pisa. Cesare Borgia contacts him, promising him the title of Captain General if he returns to his service.
Mar.TuscanyIn San Gimignano. Later that month, he returns to Siena with Pandolfo Petrucci and the French ambassador.
MayTuscanyUpon the death of Pope Alexander VI, he leaves Florence with his cousin Gentile; he rebuilds the bridge at Chiugi on the Chiana, reaches Castiglione del Lago, and the tower of Beccati Quello with 300 infantry and 100 cavalry. He attempts Panicale, moves to Magione waiting for the reinforcements promised by the Florentines and Sienese. He is confronted by Carlo Baglioni at San Manno. He avoids combat due to his numerical inferiority. He feigns a retreat towards Siena and Orvieto but makes a night march to Marsciano: here, he is joined by reinforcements brought by Francesco dei Barzi, Alessandro Conte di Sterpeto, soldiers from Foligno, and troops of Piero del Monte at Santa Maria. Once his ranks are ordered, he moves towards Torgiano where Baldassarre Signorelli awaits him. While Carlo Baglioni quickly returns to Perugia, Giampaolo Baglioni unsuccessfully tries to seize Spello. Bartolomeo d’Alviano and Ludovico degli Atti also join his forces. He raids the livestock near Castel delle Forme. The locality is sacked because its inhabitants refused to surrender to his demand. Informed by his spies that Muzio Colonna is about to arrive in support of the opponents, he blocks his passage at Bastia Umbra and Collestrada. Carlo Baglioni then leaves Perugia and positions himself at Ponte San Giovanni ready to attack him from behind. Colonna fails to appear at the rendezvous, and Carlo Baglioni is unable to implement his offensive plans.
Aug.Tuscany, UmbriaHe arranges his cavalry and infantry for battle; before dawn, he follows the course of the Tiber from Ponte Felcino; via Pretola, he reaches Ponte San Giovanni. An initial skirmish occurs at this location; among the opponents, Bernardino d’ Antignola is wounded in the face. Giampaolo Baglioni returns to Torgiano and Ponte Felcino, where he defeats Muzio Colonna. He captures Ponte Pattoli, Colombella, Civitella Benazzone, and many other castles, previously feuds of Girolamo dalla Penna and the dalla Staffa family, all of which surrender to him without a fight. He reaches Ponte Valleceppi, then back to Ponte San Giovanni. At the head of 7000 men (bearing the white banner with the vermilion lion) he assaults Perugia at the Porta di San Girolamo; after breaking through this gate and the Porta del Pino, he bursts into the city, with Gentile Baglioni entering through Porta San Pietro. Ladders are placed against the two gates of the second circle; all resistance is overcome; he also takes possession of the Porta di Sant’Ercolano and the Pirinelli tower facing the Porta Marzia. After four hours of fighting, during which the dead do not exceed 20, he reaches the cathedral where he is welcomed by his partisans; he dismounts, visits the vice-legate, the bishop of Forlì, and moves to the borough of Sant’ Angelo to prevent its sack. Together with l’Alviano, he captures the fortress of Todi mid-month and expels the Chiaravalle from the city; he reaches Amelia, expels the Gatti from Viterbo, lays waste to Montefiascone and takes from Count Bernardino da Marciano the castles of Poggio Aquilone, Migliano, Parrano, and Civitella de’ Conti for the assistance they provided to Carlo Baglioni.
Oct.Florence, OrsiniSpain, Borgia150 lancesLazioHe joins forces with Fabio Orsini, Ludovico degli Atti, and l’Alviano; they burst into Rome and are welcomed by the Venetian ambassador with significant displays of friendship. With his actions, he forces Cesare Borgia to take refuge in Castel Sant’Angelo. The new pope, Pius III, protects Duke Valentino; Baglioni then enters the service of the Florentines (allies of the French); l’Alviano and the Orsini, on the other hand, choose the opposite side, that of the Spanish. In reality, the Perugian commander has the 14,000 ducats of his contract delivered, but he does not move to the Kingdom of Naples as agreed with l’Alviano and the Spaniards. He remains inactive in Rome under the pretext of protecting the Cardinal of Rouen. When Borgia attempts to leave the city with l’Alviano, Renzo di Ceri, and Fabio Orsini, they assault the Borgo Leonino and set fire to Porta Torrione to break into the Vatican; some cardinals again save Borgia and secure his entry into Castel Sant’Angelo. Ultimately, upon the death of Pius III, the new Pope Julius II forces him to leave Rome along with the Orsini and Bartolomeo d’Alviano. Baglioni, with the Vitellis and the Sienese, pursues in the Florentine territory 400 cavalry, 60 light cavalry, and 200 infantry of Borgia, commanded by Michelotto Coreglia, Carlo Baglioni, and Taddeo della Volpe: he catches up with the opponents between Castelfiorentino and Cortona, defeats them, and captures the three captains.
Nov.UmbriaHe has Carlo Crispolti killed in Perugia; on behalf of the Papal States, he persuades Giulio Vitelli to abandon his attempt to seize Montone, formerly a fief of Niccolò and Paolo Vitelli. He then moves to Tuscany to receive his payment from the Florentines.
Dec.Florence135 lancesUmbria, TuscanyIn Orvieto, hosted by Girolamo Simoncelli. He renews his contract with the Florentines and travels to Rome. The French complain to the republic because he continually devises new excuses for not going to Campania to fight the Spaniards. The same request is made to him in Rome by the cardinals.
Mar.FlorencePisaTuscanyHe damages the crops; at San Rossore, in Val di Serchio, and Val d’Osoli; he moves under Ripafratta. His mounted crossbowmen are attacked by Pisans who have come out from the walls. Despite the orders of the commissioner Antonio Giacomini, he intervenes to rescue his men; he is about to be captured until he is saved by the action of Giovanni da Mantova. Finally, the locality surrenders at discretion.
JuneTuscanyAt the field of Cascina, he managed to reconcile with Marcantonio Colonna. Along with Bandino da Castel della Pieve and Chiriaco dal Borgo, they sacked the Lucca area; entering Viareggio, they set fire to three ships laden with wine and flour bound for Pisa. The local warehouses were also set ablaze. The three condottieri raided up to the Romito Pass and Camaiore, where they seized a hundred heads of Pisan cattle on the coast. 300 Luccan infantry opposed them; 30 were killed among the opponents. 14,000 florins is the estimated damage from their depredations. The cattle and goods appropriated by the soldiers, by order of the Ten of Balia to Giacomini, were returned to the people of Lucca.
Dec.RomagnaAt Castrocaro Terme with Ludovico della Mirandola at the head of 400 cavalry.
Jan.PerugiaMonaldeschiUmbriaIn Parrano, he attacks Ludovico and Berardo Monaldeschi della Cervara, who abandon the locality; he sacks the center. He is hosted in Orvieto by Lorenzo Magalotti; he then moves to the Tiber Valley.
Feb.LazioHe goes to Rome; he meets with Pope Julius II (Giulio II) through Montefeltro. He declares himself a faithful vassal, as well as to obey the new papal legate of Perugia, Cardinal Antonio Ferreri.
Apr. – MaySiena110 lancesUmbriaAt the beginning of the month, he receives Niccolò Machiavelli (Niccolò Machiavelli) in Perugia, sent by the republic. He states that he does not want to leave his states for fear of his political opponents. He refuses to renew his contract with the Florentines because Marcantonio and Muzio Colonna (Marcantonio e Muzio Colonna), not to mention Luca and Jacopo Savelli (Luca e Jacopo Savelli), have had more lances than his company. In reality, he seems inclined to support Alviano to the detriment of the same Florentines, although he denies such a claim. His horses stationed at Cascina, request and obtain permission to leave the field. Baglioni (Baglioni) is hired by the Sienese with 110 men-at-arms and some companies of infantry.
JuneUmbriaIn Piegaro, he reaches an agreement with the Orsini (Orsini), Petrucci (Petrucci), and Alviano to move to the aid of Pisa and to restore the Medici (Medici) in Florence. He is again contacted by Niccolò Machiavelli (Niccolò Machiavelli) and is persuaded to remain inactive. His son, Malatesta (Malatesta), however, is hired by the Florentines with a contract for 25 men-at-arms.
Aug.Tuscany, UmbriaIn Grosseto with his company and the men of Petrucci (Petrucci). Bartolomeo d’Alviano (Bartolomeo d’Alviano) is defeated at the tower of San Vincenzo near Campiglia Marittima. Giampaolo Baglioni (Giampaolo Baglioni) welcomes him in Monterotondo Marittimo; soon after, he escorts him to Perugia.
Sept.PerugiaExilesUmbriaIn the Perugian territory, he opposes Carlo Baglioni (Carlo Baglioni) and Michelotto Coreglia who roam the area with 1500 infantry, of which 600 are Spaniards and the rest are exiles from Perugia.
Sept.ChurchBologna100 lancesUmbria, RomagnaHe travels to Orvieto with 60 horses, making use of a safe-conduct provided by Francesco Maria della Rovere (Francesco Maria della Rovere). He submits to Pope Julius II (Giulio II). He approaches the Pope accompanied by his courtiers, throws himself at his feet, and hands over the fortresses of Perugia and his state, as well as the guard of the city entrusted to 500 Papal infantry. He delivers his sons Malatesta and Orazio as hostages, who are entrusted to the Duke of Urbino. Trusting in him, Julius II enters Perugia unarmed with a small escort, including della Rovere and Cardinal Ferreri. Baglioni (Baglioni) meets him after having arranged his soldiers along the path the Pope is to travel. A solemn Te Deum is celebrated in the cathedral, and, a few days later, a mass in the Church of San Francesco with a homily by Fra Egidio da Viterbo. The Pope stays in the city for several days to receive the envoy of the King of France, the Cardinal of Narbonne. Baglioni, for his part, hosts Cardinal Galeotto della Rovere (Galeotto della Rovere) of San Pietro in Vincoli in his palace. He is forgiven for his past errors; he is also allowed to remain in Perugia. He escorts the Pope to Castel della Pieve with Guidobaldo da Montefeltro (Guidobaldo da Montefeltro). He is obliged to allow the return to the city of exiles and those who had been previously banished, with the exception of Carlo Baglioni (Carlo Baglioni) and Girolamo dalla Penna. He is led by the Papal forces to expel the Bentivoglio from Bologna. After reviewing his men, he sets off for Gubbio and from there heads towards Forlì.
Oct.RomagnaIn Forlì and Cesena with 150 men-at-arms. He joins forces with Francesco Gonzaga (Francesco Gonzaga) to confront the Bentivoglio. He takes part in the conquest of Bologna; he attends a solemn mass in San Petronio with Gonzaga and Giovanni da Sassatello (Giovanni da Sassatello). At the review of his company, it consists of 70 men-at-arms and 60 light horses, equivalent to a contract of 100 men-at-arms.
Mar.RomagnaBeside the Pope in Imola and Forlì.
Sept.UmbriaHe organizes a joust in Perugia, won by Sforza Baglioni (Sforza Baglioni).
Nov. – Dec.RomagnaIn the Cesenate area, his men cause damage to the territory. In December, he is reported to be in Forlì.
Jan.ChurchBentivoglioEmiliaHe is appointed to guard Bologna with 400 infantry to quell some riots incited by Gaspare Scappi (Gaspare Scappi), a partisan of the Bentivoglio.
JuneTuscanyIn Siena.
Sept.EmiliaAlongside Ludovico Pio (Ludovico Pio) and Giovanni da Sassatello (Giovanni da Sassatello), he razes Bagnolo in the Bolognese area because the inhabitants had given shelter to partisans of the Bentivoglio.
Nov.Emilia, UmbriaHe attends the review of his company in Bologna. At its conclusion, he leaves the territory to return to Umbria.
Apr.ChurchVenice100 lancesRomagnaHe organizes a treaty in Rimini with a corporal of Matteo da Zara to have the Porta di Nazareth left open; this individual is also supposed to set fire to the stables of Giovanni Greco. The conspiracy is discovered, and the soldier is executed by the Venetians in the square.
MayRomagnaIn Santarcangelo di Romagna, along with Ludovico della Mirandola (Ludovico della Mirandola), he ambushes in Val di Lamone, capturing 800 infantry, 125 men-at-arms, and 200 light cavalry led by Giampaolo Manfrone. Immediately after, he enters Brisighella with his men mixed among the fleeing enemies; he secures the fortress following the explosion at the santabarbara. His men inflict serious damage on the Cesenate territory.
JuneRomagna, UmbriaHe moves from Forlimpopoli with 10,000 men to attack Russi, which is defended by 400 infantry. The locality surrenders due to the defeat nearby by Giovanni Greco (Giovanni Greco), who had come out from Ravenna to assist the defenders. Later, he is in Spoleto with the Pope.
JulyLazio, UmbriaHe travels to San Michele in Teverina and to Orvieto where he joins Francesco Maria della Rovere (Francesco Maria della Rovere). He hosts the latter and his wife in Perugia. Subsequently, both proceed to Todi to pay homage to the papal legate, Bishop Gabriele Gabrielli of Urbino.
Aug.VenetoAt the siege of Padua.
Jan.UmbriaHe welcomes Pope Julius II (Giulio II), Francesco Maria della Rovere, and Elisabetta Gonzaga, the widow of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, in Perugia. At the end of the month, he is reported to be in Orvieto.
Feb. – Apr.UmbriaHe negotiates with the Venetians who offer him the position of General Governor and a contract for 200 men-at-arms. However, he does not receive permission from the Pope to transfer.
MayUmbria, Marche, EmiliaHe leaves Perugia as he’s sent by the pontiff to Bologna, where all the militias of the Papal State are gathered. He takes the road to Urbino and reaches the city.
JulyChurchFerrrara, FranceRomagnaIn Romagna, under the command of della Rovere and the pontifical legate, Cardinal Francesco Alidosi, he takes possession of Cento and Pieve di Cento with 400 cavalry and infantry.
Sug.RomagnaDuring the siege of the fortress of Lugo, he is wounded in the arm by a musket shot. He moves to Ravenna for treatment; soon after recovering, he attacks the French who choose to withdraw.
Sept.EmiliaFrom Castel Bolognese, he moves to San Giovanni Finale in the Modena area to block the road to Bologna for the French. During the same period, he is accused of poisoning his son-in-law, Pier Giacomo Monaldeschi, who serves in his company. Baglioni pressures Pier Giacomo’s parents, Francesco and Imperia Monaldeschi, to persuade their son Malatesta to marry their daughter Costanza, the heiress of the family estate. It is easy for him to convince the Monaldeschi that the Orvietans are behind the assassination of their son-in-law.
Oct.EmiliaHe assists the people of Modena alongside della Rovere, Fabrizio Colonna, Giovanni Vitelli, and Marcantonio Colonna. Disputes among the various captains and those between della Rovere and Cardinal Alidosi prevent the pontiffs from taking coordinated and effective action. With Melchiorre Ramazzotto and Guido Vaina, Baglioni opposes the French at the Sant’Ambrogio pass.
Nov.EmiliaIn Modena and Bologna, he attends some war councils held by the pontiffs and the Venetians.
Jan.100 lancesEmiliaHe attends the review of his company, which takes place in front of Julius II; then he moves towards Concordia, on the Secchia, to block the passage to the adversaries.
Feb.TuscanyHe besieges the bastion of Zaniolo/Genivolo in the Ferrara area with 77 lances and 61 light cavalry.
JuneChurchFlorenceTuscany, Romagna, EmiliaHe supports the lord of Siena, Pandolfo Petrucci, with Giovanni Vitelli, who is threatened by the Florentines. He returns to Imola and gathers troops for the reconquest of Bologna. He allies with Andrea da Capua and Fabrizio Colonna. They face opposition from Galeazzo Pallavicini from Reggio, Giovan Francesco Gambara, and Corrado Tarlatini.
JulyVeniceFranceGeneral governorRomagnaHe obtains permission from Julius II to switch to the payroll of the Venetians, who choose him as their general governor instead of Marcantonio Colonna. He is granted a commission of 200 men-at-arms, 50 light cavalry, and 100 infantry in times of war. The contract is for three years, and he is allocated an annual provision of 3000 ducats; he is given 2000 ducats to raise 1000 infantrymen in the Val di Lamone.
Aug.Umbria, RomagnaIn Perugia, a flotilla of 7 ships led by Daniele Dandolo awaits him at Cattolica to embark his men; he receives another 3000 ducats. He leaves the city with 800 cavalry and 500 infantry.
Sept.RomagnaHe stops in Rimini, waiting for the remainder of the payment for six months’ service to be disbursed.
Oct.Romagna, VenetoHe receives an advance of another 2500 ducats with the promise of the balance upon his arrival. He disembarks at Chioggia, and halfway through the month, Andrea Trevisan and Antonio Giustinian deliver to him the standard and baton of the general governor. He is welcomed in Padua by Bernardino di Montone. Later on, following the advice of astrologers, he has the insignia of command handed to him again. The ceremony takes place in the city’s cathedral, and the review of his companies occurs in the Prato della Valle.
Nov.VenetoIn Padua, he meets with the Burgundian captain della Rosa, captured by the stradiots; he requests more money for the payment of his men. He leaves the city with the general provost Andrea Gritti through the Codalunga Gate and heads to Vicenza.
Dec.VeniceEmpire, FranceVenetoHe moves towards Cadore to oppose the enemy’s advance. At Bassano del Grappa and Feltre, he rejoins with the troops led by Giampaolo Manfrone at Serravalle (Vittorio Veneto). Due to his limited knowledge of the terrain, he dares not engage in battle. He also does not move towards Friuli to besiege Gradisca d’Isonzo as requested by the provost Giovanni Paolo Gradenigo. He recaptures Belluno but soon is forced to retreat to Vicenza, where his soldiers behave hostilely towards the population.
Jan.178 lances, 50 light cavalry, and 113 infantrymenVenetoHe leaves Vicenza to try to recapture Verona: he injures his leg during the march because his mount is startled by a sudden shot from an arquebus by one of his soldiers. He returns to Vicenza for treatment; he is struck by a feverish attack. He has himself transported to Cologna Veneta where he joins his forces with those of Bernardino da Montone.
Feb.Veneto, LombardyAt Bonavigo, to support the action of the general provider Andrea Gritti who, with a swift maneuver, managed to enter Brescia. He heads to Valeggio sul Mincio with 500 lances; he besieges the castle, leaves a garrison on the bridge, and moves to Villafranca di Verona. Finally, he turns to assist Brescia with troops, artillery (10 pieces), and supplies; he sacks Nogarole Rocca. He is faced by 500 lances and 700 French mounted archers, followed by the rest of the army. Bernardino da Montone (Bernardino di Montone) dismantles the pontoon bridge at Albaredo d’Adige. This makes Giampaolo Baglioni so indecisive that he is caught by enemy troops. Mid-month, some light cavalry led by Martino Gradani cross the small bridge over the river Trone, which separates the two armies, and attack his rear guard. Baglioni decides to quicken the march, aiming to ford the Adige at the Torre del Magnano. A good part of his men reach the opposite bank when the transalpine cavalry arrives. The Venetians are caught in disorder; after the first assault, they lose 5 artillery pieces. The clash occurs at four in the morning on snow-covered fields. The Molard infantry, intervening later, severely challenges him; his mount is injured, and 2 squires are killed. He flees after suffering numerous losses (among dead and prisoners, 200 infantry and 90 men-at-arms). He retreats to Soave where he finds consolation in a woman he brought with him from Padua. He moves to Lonigo; he tries to reassemble the ranks of the troops under his command; he stops at Poiana and Barbarano Vicentino.
Mar.200 lances, 50 light cavalry, and 80 infantrymenVeneto, LazioIn Vicenza and Malo; he withdraws all the men-at-arms from Schio, Montecchio Maggiore, Arzignano to concentrate the defense along the Vicenza/Padua axis. At the guard of the first location, 500 infantry and 500 light cavalry are assigned. He moves to Sovizzo.
Apr.VenetoHe sends light cavalry and infantry with some artillery pieces to the banks of the Po River to obstruct the supply lines to the French camp. He moves to Vicenza; he negotiates a truce with the opponents.
May200 men-at-arms, 50 mounted crossbowmen, and 112 infantrymenVenetoHe attends the muster of his men at the Campo di Marte in Vicenza (200 men-at-arms, 50 mounted crossbowmen, and 112 provisioned troops). With the arrival in Italy of 20,000 Swiss hired by the Serene Republic and the State of the Church, he leaves Vicenza with the general provider Paolo Capello, moves to Cologna Veneta, and advances against La Palisse, who has at his disposal only 1,000 lances and 6,000/7,000 infantrymen. At Soave; at the camp of Albaredo d’Adige he requests money for the payrolls of all the troops. He consults with Renzo da Ceri and Capello and has the artillery transported to Villafranca di Verona where the Swiss have arrived.
JuneVeneto, LombardyAt Villafranca di Verona; he enters Valeggio sul Mincio; he bursts into Lombardy. Following the withdrawal of the German infantry from the French ranks by order of Emperor Maximilian of Austria, he leaves the camp of San Martino del Lago and Cavaliera with Renzo da Ceri and Giano Fregoso to attack Pizzighettone. He participates in the conquest of Pavia.
JulyLombardy, Piedmont, EmiliaHe receives the order to withdraw from the Pavia area; he executes this with extreme slowness as a response to the delay in payment of wages. The Venetian infantry loots near Cremona, at a bridge over the Po River, seizing 160 lances and 100 mounted crossbowmen from Florence led by Silvio Savelli: strong disputes arise between the Venetians and the Swiss over the division of the spoils, leading to a brawl in which 15 Swiss infantrymen are killed. Baglioni, along with Antonio Pio, works to calm the tensions, effectively conceding to the allies’ demands. He reaches the camp at Castellazzo Bormida. He becomes assertive when the Cardinal of Sion, Matteo Schiner, holds the Venetian providers Paolo Capello and Cristoforo Moro prisoners because the Venetians are late in paying 14,000 ducats on their obligations. Baglioni puts the troops and artillery on high alert until the two officials of the Serene Republic are released upon the promise of delivering 8,000 raynes to their captains as compensation for the loot previously taken from the Swiss by the Venetians with their intervention against the lances of Luca Savelli. He sets up camp at Novi Ligure; heads for Casalmaggiore, reaches Castel San Giovanni, and enters Piacenza. Along with Francesco Rangoni and Giovanni Forti, he moves towards the city port on the Po and drives out 40 men-at-arms and some mounted crossbowmen of Alessandro Sforza, a commander of the allied Duke of Milan, who had tried to oppose his passage.
Aug.LombardyIn Ozzano in the Cremona area. He pushes into the Brescia area and heads to Pontevico where he must forcefully suppress some pro-French demonstrations. In this location, he joins forces with the militias gathered by the provider Leonardo Emo. At Verolavecchia, a fief of the Gambara family; he begins to besiege Brescia. Disorders arise in the Venetian camp due to the killing of Troilo Orsini by a man-at-arms from his own company: he justifies this incident to the Serene Republic by placing all blame for the occurrence on the conduct of the killed captain. His conflicts with Ceri also increase; he bitterly complains to the Venetians because the Serene Republic has increased the command given to this commander. He repels an enemy cavalry sortie at San Zeno Naviglio; at the end of the month, he positions 3 artillery batteries against Brescia, 2 on the mountain facing the castle, and one towards the Porta di Torlonga. He camps first at Bagnolo Mella and then at San Zeno.
Sept.LombardyHe tightens the siege of Brescia, cutting off the city’s water supply; he protests the small number of infantry at his disposal, the delay in payments, and the ineffective artillery fire. An attempt to negotiate a treaty to find an open gate in the city fails. The conflict with Renzo da Ceri also intensifies, especially after the latter seizes Crema; he demands, in vain, Ceri’s presence under Brescia. He demands the surrender of the opponents; L’Aubigny threatens to hang his trumpeter if he were to appear again. The month passes without any progress. The artillery continues to hit walls and towers until a small breach is made in the curtain of the Porta della Pusterla. The batteries (20 pieces, both large and small) are now arranged differently: 10 pieces, including some falconets, are aimed at the Coltrone Tower; a second battery of 4 pieces, placed on the Goletta, targets the Pusterla. A third of 6 heavy cannons bombards the city from the San Floriano hill, targeting the Porta Torlonga. Nevertheless, the fire remains largely ineffective due to the distance of the batteries from their targets.
Oct.LombardyDiscomfort grows in the Venetian camp due to the rain and mud. Giampaolo Baglioni bombards Brescia for three days before reinforcements sent by the Spanish allies, led by Raimondo di Cardona, approach the city. The French surrender on terms, despite his protests, into the hands of these last. Baglioni once again proves inadequate for his role and fails to maintain discipline among his ranks, as when the infantry of Annibale da Bologna plunder some houses in the square. The thieves, condemned to hanging, hide among the Romagnol infantry and the matter ends there. At the same time, his resentment towards the French grows; he forbids them from appearing at the camp to purchase provisions (3 soldiers are killed). He is seen in Brescia with L’Aubigny and at Ghedi, together with the provider Cristoforo Moro, the Viceroy of Naples, Raimondo di Cardona, ensures that the French are forbidden from leaving the city with their belongings. He orders a parade of his entire army at San Polo (9,000 infantry) and has them march demonstratively in front of the Torlonga and the castle still in French hands. He meets in the village of San Giovanni with Cardona; the latter has the Spanish protect the exit from Brescia of the enemy troops.
Nov.Lombardy, VenetoAt Desenzano del Garda, due to a lack of provisions and fodder for the mounts, he sends his emissaries to Venice to request his release. He waits at Ronchi.
Dec.VenetoHe expresses the intention to attack 800 Spanish cavalry that have come to Valeggio sul Mincio and Villafranca di Verona. Without waiting for a response, he moves to Isola della Scala and dispatches artillery and wagons to the countryside of Cologna Veneta. He then crosses the Adige with Bernardino da Montone; he sends the troops to winter camps. He requests permission to return to Perugia. In Venice, he is accused in the Collegio of embezzlement committed by his men in the Verona area; criticisms of him are also expressed by the provider Cristoforo Moro in front of the Doge Leonardo Loredan. The opinion of the Council of the Wise prevails, deciding to continue the relationship with Baglioni.
Jan.VenetoHe requests the general command of all troops, including those of Renzo da Ceri, a provision of 6,000 ducats instead of 3,000, a contract similar to the previous one, and a firm one-year commitment without the customary respect year. At San Bonifacio, he learns of the Venetian counterproposal: an increase of 1,000 ducats in his provision, an increase in the command of 25 men-at-arms “in white” (i.e., paid on paper), 50 light cavalry, and 25 provisioned troops; a firm for one year.
Feb.VenetoHis soldiers sack Cazzano di Tramigna. His son, Malatesta, fails to control the situation; even the castle of Illasi, belonging to Girolamo Pompei, is attacked. He excuses the misdeeds of his men and minimizes their severity. Pope Julius II dies. He again requests permission to go to Perugia and return to being its lord.
Mar.Veneto, Emilia, Umbria, LazioHe receives a negative response. Nevertheless, without the authorization of the general provider Domenico Contarini, he leaves the state with only 30 horses. He passes through Ferrara and reaches Perugia where he is welcomed by the celebrating population. Finally, he goes to Rome with Sforza Baglioni and Ottaviano Signorelli to pay homage to the new Pope Leo X.
Apr.VeniceSpain, Empire, MilanGeneral governorLazio, Tuscany, VenetoIn Venice, Cristoforo Moro opposes his recall; however, he is praised by the general provider Paolo Capello. He is granted a command of 225 men-at-arms for a one-year term. For his part, Baglioni meets in Bracciano with Gian Giordano Orsini, reaches Florence, and then arrives in Lendinara to confront the Spaniards. He makes several requests such as permission to raise 1,000 infantrymen in Tuscany, a command for his relative Baldassarre Signorelli, and the license to travel to Venice. His requests are not granted; he goes to San Bonifacio and Rovigo for the review of the men-at-arms and the infantry.
MayVenetoHe requests three months’ pay but is given only 2,500 ducats; he then sends Ugo Pepoli to Venice and threatens not to move. Eventually, from France to the Venetian camp comes Bartolomeo d’Alviano, recently released from French prison. This commander judges him as “a man of good counsel, but without obedience.” Baglioni moves to San Martino Buon Albergo; he attacks Verona and positions his camp in front of Porta Palio and the citadel.
JuneLombardy, VenetoHe follows Bartolomeo d’Alviano towards Cremona; he moves along the banks of the Po River at Cava Tigozzi to monitor the movements of the Spaniards. He is sent by Contarini with Teodoro da Trivulzio to Milan to aid the defenders of the Sforzesco Castle. The city rises in favor of the French allies; thus, Baglioni can return to the camp at San Bassano. D’Alviano sends him to the Po to prevent Raimondo di Cardona from crossing the river on a pontoon bridge; with the mission’s failure, he retreats to Pizzighettone. The French are heavily defeated at Novara, forcing Baglioni to first fall back to Pontevico and then to Ronchi. He is tasked with seizing the fortress of Legnago (defended by 150 Spanish and German infantry) with 1,200 infantry and a band of cavalry: he breaches part of the walls with artillery and captures the fortress. He is praised in writing by the Senate. As the opponents draw near, Baglioni is forced to abandon the location, taking away artillery and provisions. He stops at Santa Lucia to attack Verona again; he protests the delay in payments and at the end of the month, under pressure from the Spaniards, retreats into the Vicenza area.
JulyVenetoHe offers to gather 500 infantrymen in the Perugia area; he retreats to Este where his men, still undisciplined, come into conflict with those of Bartolomeo d’Alviano. He is transferred to guard Treviso; in the city, he takes lodging in the bishop’s residence. He is again accused by the Venetians of failing to maintain order among his soldiers, who instead engage in the looting of the townspeople’s property. From Treviso, he moves to Noale; he returns to Treviso with Malatesta Malatesta da Sogliano and Taddeo della Volpe.
Aug.VenetoHe receives 2,000 ducats as a balance of his pay. He falls ill, and the Serene Republic, concerned about his health, promptly sends three doctors to examine him.
Sept.VenetoHe hosts Bartolomeo d’Alviano in Treviso, who has come to the city to oversee its defense works. He joins forces with Alviano in Limena, leading 250 men-at-arms, 500 light cavalry, and 2,000 infantrymen as Raimondo di Cardona and Prospero Colonna retreat from Fusina towards Cittadella.
Oct. – Nov.Veneto, LombardyHe moves to Vicenza and repels a Spanish attack on the city with artillery. D’Alviano decides to engage in open battle at Creazzo with the Spaniards; he entrusts Baglioni with the command of the right wing (900 men-at-arms). His task is to perform a flanking maneuver and attack the enemies on their sides: due to the marshy terrain, he is unable to arrive in time to support the square of Venetian infantrymen. As a result, they are overwhelmed by the enemy. Defeated, he is captured along with Giulio Manfrone and Malatesta Malatesta da Sogliano after suffering significant losses. He is taken to Vicenza (which has fallen into Spanish hands); he is released on parole through the intercession of Troilo Savelli and Prospero Colonna. He is allowed to go to Venice and try to secure, in exchange for his freedom, that of the Spanish captain Alfonso di Carvajal. He arrives at Marghera and Venice; he goes to the Collegio with Ugo Pepoli. In the city, he is hosted by Andrea Gritti. He meets with the Doge in San Marco; in the Council of Ten, he places all blame for the defeat on D’Alviano. The Venetians accept his request and also demand the release of Malatesta Malatesta da Sogliano. Baglioni visits Carvajal in prison, goes to Treviso, and returns to Vicenza. The Imperial Cardinal, Gurk, does not accept the proposed exchange, which had been negotiated by the Spaniards without his knowledge. He goes to Mantova and from there moves to Montagnana to resolve the matter with Raimondo di Cardona; ultimately, he considers himself free from all oaths and moves to Padova. In November, he attends a solemn mass in the cathedral with other Venetian commanders. He returns to Venice where he reports his opinion in the Collegio; finally, he heads to Rome where he has been summoned by Pope Leo X. He promises to go to Naples in the following March and to surrender himself as a prisoner to the King of Spain.
Dec.Marche, LazioA Venetian galley lands him at Pesaro. From there, he heads towards Rome.
Feb. – Apr.UmbriaIn Perugia. In April, the Pope forbids him from leaving Perugia and from traveling to Tyrol to visit Emperor Maximilian of Austria.
………FlorenceGeneral governor
JulyChurch150 lancesLazioIn Rome. He proposes to raise 6,000 infantrymen; the Pope grants him a command of 150 lances and gives him permission to enlist 3,000 infantrymen.
Aug.Umbria, EmiliaIn Perugia, at the muster of 3,600 infantrymen gathered from the countryside. He leaves for Bologna with this contingent.
Sept. – Oct.EmiliaIn Nonantola. Later in Bologna (October) with the 3,600 infantry and some cavalry.
Dec.The Council of the Wise in Venice discusses a possible reappointment for him; his name is rejected both due to the damages caused by his men in the Treviso area and for his less than stellar performance in the battle of Creazzo.
Mar.ChurchUrbinoUmbriaHe fights under the command of Lorenzo de’ Medici against the Duke of Urbino, Francesco Maria della Rovere; he confronts the forces from Feltre near Gubbio.
MayUmbriaHe is named by the Pope as Count of Bettona, along with Gentile Baglioni and his son Malatesta.
JuneMarcheHe enters Urbino with Renzo da Ceri. In Perugia, along with his cousin Gentile, he is appointed among the Ten of the Discretion. He commands 2,000 infantrymen.
Sept.ChurchExilesMarcheIn Fermo with Ceri (200 men-at-arms) to defend the town from exiles of the Ghibelline faction: these exiles receive aid from the Colonna family.
Jan.ChurchComp. venturaLazio, UmbriaIn Rome. In the city, he manages to escape an assassination attempt by some hitmen of Carlo Baglioni in the Borgo Leonino. He enlists 3,000 infantry on behalf of Lorenzo de’ Medici and confronts della Rovere‘s attempt to reclaim the Duchy of Urbino. He is delayed in reaching Gubbio with 400 cavalry and 6,000 infantry, allowing Carlo da Gubbio to incite the city against the papal forces.
Feb.Lazio, Romagna, MarcheIn Viterbo, where with Gian Giordano Orsini, Ludovico Orsini, and Giovan Corrado Orsini, he brokers a peace agreement between the Maganzesi faction and the Gatti faction. He then returns to Rimini with 150 men-at-arms, 100 light cavalry, and 1,000 infantry; from there, he moves to defend Pesaro. He is displeased due to the significant delay in payments (creditor of 9,000 ducats).
Mar.MarcheAt the head of the vanguard, he clashes with Francesco Maria della Rovere at Mombaroccio; he retreats towards Fossombrone after his son Costantino is captured by the opponents. Francesco Maria della Rovere flees. Giampaolo Baglioni is accused along with Renzo da Ceri and Vitello Vitelli of inactivity by Lorenzo de’ Medici. He is forced to travel to Rome to justify his actions before the Pope; he returns to the field with Gentile Baglioni and besieges Mondolfo. With the surrender of the castle, he enters to divide the loot among his men. He gathers all the women in one part of the fortress under the pretext of wanting to save them from the violence of the soldiers and demands they hand over their jewels and money. He selects two young women to bring to his tent; concerning his personal choice, he has a dispute with his son Orazio.
MayMarche, UmbriaHe abandons Pesaro due to rumors of an impending attack on Perugia by Francesco Maria della Rovere and Carlo Baglioni. He reaches the city via Val di Bagno and enters its defense with 4,000 infantry. While riding in Borgo San Pietro, near the church of San Domenico, he narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by Eusebio Baglioni, who tries to kill him with two sword strikes. In the conspiracy, still orchestrated by Carlo Baglioni, Francesco Spirito and Giovanni Taddeo Baglioni are also involved: all are pushed into the square and beheaded there. Their bodies are dragged through the city streets; their severed heads are placed on pikes, and their remains are brought back to the main square of Perugia.
Baglioni receives reinforcements of 600 French cavalry led by Camillo da Trivulzio, many lances, and 200 light cavalry under the command of Camillo Orsini, followed by numerous infantry from Florence, Siena, Todi, and Città della Pieve. For the defense of Perugia, there are at least 18,000 to 20,000 armed men. This allows him to rid himself of political rivals in the city; however, he does not show the same initiative against his opponents, with whom he instead reaches an agreement by delivering 10,000 ducats and provisions to della Rovere in order to see him retreat from the countryside. His conduct increasingly leads him to be suspected by the Pope, especially as he is believed to have appropriated part of the bounty given to the Duke of Urbino.
………UmbriaHe is attacked at Castiglione del Lago by his cousin, Gentile.
Sept.TuscanyHe is in Florence for the wedding of the Duke of Urbino, Lorenzo de’ Medici, to Maddalena de la Tour d’Auvergne.
Sept.He offers his services to the Venetians, but his offer is in vain.
Mar.Umbria, LazioHe expels his cousin Gentile from Perugia and is summoned to Rome by the Pope because it is suspected that he organized an assassination attempt in the city, following which five of his hitmen were imprisoned. He is also believed to have been aware of the conspiracy organized by Cardinal Petrucci against the Pope himself. He leaves Castiglione del Lago, where he had gone for the wedding of his daughter Elisabetta to Camillo Orsini. He returns to Perugia, also due to movements of papal troops on the borders against him. He sends his son Malatesta to Rome; eventually, in mid-month, persuaded by his son-in-law who secures a safe-conduct for him, he goes to Rome in person. He is imprisoned in Castel Sant’Angelo on charges of inciting a revolt in the March of Ancona with his son Orazio; he also confesses, under torture, to numerous crimes including incest with his sisters, rapes with his daughters, many murders, and the coining of counterfeit money. During this time, he also confesses to several alleged betrayals involving Rinieri della Sassetta.
JuneLazioMid-month, he is beheaded at night in Castel Sant’Angelo. Under pressure from Renzo da Ceri, his body is buried in Rome at the church of Santa Maria Traspuntina, rather than being displayed on the Ponte Sant’Angelo as was generally the case at that time for criminals. Due to renovations of the temple, his tomb is demolished by Pope Pius IV for military reasons.
The heraldic device of the Baglioni family features a silver griffin on a red field with the motto “unguibus et rostro atque aliis armatus in hostem” (armed with claws and beak and wings against the enemy). Regarding this, his cousin Gentile was known to say that this bird did not have the wings it once had to escape the trap that had been set for it.
Agostino Bindoni publishes in the same year in Venice the short poem in terza rima, “Lamento del sig. Gio. Paulo Baglioni con il pianto d’Italia ed il lamento di Rodi.” Another lament for the death of Baglioni is written by Petronio Barbati from Foligno. Mario Podiani writes some verses in his honor; he is remembered in a novella by Bandello. A portrait of him, painted by Luca Signorelli, is located in the San Brizio chapel in the cathedral of Orvieto; a second appears in the Vitelli room of Città di Castello in a fresco depicting the meeting organized at Magione by Cardinal Latino Orsini and other commanders against Cesare Borgia. He is also portrayed multiple times by Bernardino di Mariotto (Pinacoteca di Perugia). He marries Ippolita Conti.


-“Spirto gentil, se in te pietà si prova/ fermati alquanto in quest’oscura tomba,/ che sentirai di me la crudel nova./ Son quel Baglion di cui fama rimbomba,/ del sangue perugin, di quella prole/ che infin al Ciel risuona la sua tromba.” Dal lamento per la sua morte di B. Degli Alessandri riportato da MEDIN-FRATI

-“Questo governator è prima homo di gran corazo, di perfeto juditio et consiglio, persona disposta ad ogni faticha, amato da tutti li soldati cussì a piedi come a cavalo; ha homene d’arme 200, che valeno più che tuto il resto di le nostre zente, e li soi cavali lizieri sono li primi dil campo; ha grandissimo seguito di fanti et modo di averne in ogni tempo bon numero, che non seria villani né schamperia come fanno li brixigelli… A questi tempi fa per mi tenirlo…” SANUDO

-Si distinse “per quella umanità e gentilezza che è possibile nel mestiere della guerra, e di non uso certo nel reprimere i suoi concittadini…Umano e gentile, quando non si trattava di interessi perugini o di gravi torti da vendicare.” BONAZZI

-“Il quale mentre visse fu tanto dal cielo e da la fortuna favorito. Fu costui di bellissimo e grazioso aspetto, benigno e piacevole; parlatore eloquentissimo, e di gran prudenza, et in ogni suo gesto corrispondente; deditissimo al compiacere e servire ogni uomo.. Fu ancora molto inclinato ad amar donne, da le quale fu sommamente amato, per il delicato e signorile aspetto che in lui si mostrava: oltre che fu sempre ne l’arme prode e valoroso cavaliero, e di mirabile e guasi divino ingegno e consiglio.” FROLLIERE

-“Huomo molto sperto delle armi..Fu huomo di grand’animo, e di gran prudenza.” ALBERTI

-“Il primo uomo di Perosa, e nell’arte della guerra di gran nome.” BEMBO

-“Uomo veramente per la sua disonesta ed infame vita indegno del nome di Capitano.” CASTELLINI

-“Eccellente.. per l’esperienza della guerra e per vigore d’animo.. Huomo terribile d’ingegno, e pronto  di mano.” GIOVIO

-Con i due figli Malatesta ed Orazio “Questi son tre guerrier dipinti in uno,/ Anzi di guerra tre folgori ardenti:/ Degni che gli anni e riverisca ogniuno./ Piega lor le ginocchia riverenti/ Tre volte, o forestiero, e guarda quanto/ S’allegra di due figli a se presenti./ Il padre, essi di vedersi a canto/Il lor famoso e chiaro genitore,/ che ne l’armi acquistò splendor costante.” Paolo Giovio il giovane, da un sonetto raccolto dal GIOVIO

-“Hebbe il Baglione statura grande, carnagione bianca, gli occhi e capelli castagnicci e la barba bionda.” ROSCIO

-“Virum armis praestantem, et quod in bello magni ponderis, summe militibus carum.” VERI

-“Di bellissima presenza di volto e di corpo, d’eccellente eloquenza, e necessaria alla professione ch’egli faceva della guerra, i cui costumi erano tali, che nessuno gli harebbe biasimati in campo, e molti gli lodavano a tempo di pace; se non ch’egli senza scordarsi mai delle particolarità, soleva vendicar gli odii antichi, e vituperar la sua e l’altrui famiglia con dishonesti amori…Huomo terribile d’ingegno e pronto di mano.. Huomo molto sperto nell’armi..Fu uomo di grand’animo e di gran prodezza.” SANSOVINO

-“Valente capitano di ventura.” BOSI

-“Condottiere sans foi comme tous les autres.” PERRENS

-“Artis bellice peritissimus.” SANSI

-“Soggetto celebre ed accreditato in guerra.” VERDIZZOTTI

-“Tiranno di Perugia, il quale con le sue mani avea fatte più occisioni, ed era temuto da tutti grandemente.” Da una cronaca anonima riportata dal VERMIGLIOLI

-“La fama non potrà mai morire,/ Che lascio doi figlioli, che ognuno è un Marte,/ Che a chi mal pensa ancor farà pentire.” Agostino Bindoni “Dal lamento del sign. Gio. Paolo Baglioni con il pianto d’Italia” riportato da FABRETTI

-“E’ valente homo, ha boni consigli, desidera aver honor, ma ha poca praticha di governo, e li soi fanno gran mali.” Da un giudizio del provveditore generale Cristoforo Moro riportato dal SANUDO

-“Non valse forza a Zan Paul Baione,/ che si portò quel dì da paladino/ che ferito havendo el bon ronzone (cavallo)/ forza gli fu ristrarse dal camino,/ el con nepote lì lassar persone,/ como volse il suo crudel destino.” ANONIMO (La rotta e presa fatta a Bresa per li Francesi)

-Con Bartolomeo d’Alviano “Huomini, secondo Italiani, di grande conditioni et experientia.” Da una lettera dei Dieci di Balia al GUICCIARDINI

-Con Vitellozzo Vitelli, Paolo Orsini e Bartolomeo di Capranica “Tutti capitani di buon nome.” ALVISI

-“Pochi personaggi e signori del Rinascimento italiano hanno lasciato di sé una fama così discussa come Gian Paolo Baglioni. E’ uno dei personaggi contro cui si sono più accaniti gli storici dei secoli passati. Alcuni hanno messo in risalto i suoi peccati, i suoi difetti e i suoi tradimenti, pochi hanno tratteggiato i suoi pregi, nessuno le sue virtù. Contro di lui si schierarono compatti tutti gli storici toscani dell’epoca, con in testa il Machiavelli e il Guicciardini, seguiti dal Nardi e dall’Ammirato. Furono benevoli nei suoi confronti solo i memorialisti e gli storici perugini che con molto sforzo e tanta buona volontà riuscirono a scoprire in Gian Paolo anche qualche lato umano da ricordare ai posteri…Gian Paolo fu non solo uno dei più grandi ribaldi del suo tempo, ma anche un condottiero abile, prudente e valoroso, ultimo, con il cognato Bartolomeo d’Alviano, della scuola Braccesca. Come soldato fu amato e stimato dai perugini che correvano a militare nelle sue schiere mercenarie. Con loro era liberale, di modi affabili, di parola facile, anche alla buona, nonostante il torvo aspetto e l’aristocratica burbanza. Apprezzato dai fanti come condottiero e dalle madonne per il suo fascino, rimane il fatto che a stimarlo furono ribaldi e donne di non troppo morigerati costumi che, come lui, costituivano la popolazione attiva, forte e pugnace di Perugia di quei tempi.” GIUBBONI

-“Et a la detta morte di Gio Paolo se disse che fu ordinata dal signore Gentile Baglioni, suo fratello consubrino per invidia perché era majore homo de luje, che in questa parte non se poteva più oltre che Gio Paolo e ogne homo de luje tremava, e niun soldato era ardito a mettere el piede nel peroscino contra sua voglia, er era un bello homo grande e grosso.” Da uno scritto di Giulio Di Costantino riportato da GIUBBONI

-“Personaggio segnalato nelle vicende d’Italia, spertissimo condottiero e severo politico…Vari scrittori accusarono Giampaolo di sozzure e ne lasciarono ricordanza tristissima. La sentenza del Guicciardini udimmo, gli altri stettero a quella e al racconto di un cronista padovano (riportato dal Muratori): “Certo non fu uomo che avesse colpe gravissime.” Poco dopo aggiunge: “Abbandonatosi ad incestuose voluttà, non conobbe la pace domestica, sempre in discordia con la sua compagna di letto.. Alla sua fine concorsero le rivalità dei parenti e degli emuli. Ma la colpa maggiore di lui fu certamente il primeggiare fra i suoi cittadini, dirigere a proprio talento il senno dei magistrati e mantenere la patria sua indipendente dalla potestà della Chiesa.” FABRETTI

-“Acquistò fama di Capitano illustre. Hebbe il Baglione statura grande: carnagion bianca: gli occhi, e capelli castagnicci: e la barba bionda.” CAPRIOLO

-“Famous “condottiere” (and alleged inventor of “zabaglione”.” ARFAIOLI

-“…quel nobil capitano/ qual è dicto zoan Paulo balione.” Da “La presa della città di Bologna” in GUERRE IN OTTAVA RIMA

-“Le effettive ragioni di una così drastica misura (la sua decapitazione) non furono mai ufficialmente rivelate: corse voce che oltre la supposta connivenza con Francesco Maria della Rovere, si muoveva accusa al Baglioni di avere partecipato alla congiura del cardinale Alfonso Petrucci contro Leone X. In realtà, la sua morte fu probabilmente un episodio della lotta di leone X contro i signori e i capi delle fazioni che pregiudicavano l’effettivo esercizio del suo dominio nello Stato pontificio: l’attentato contro il duca di Ferrara Alfonso d’Este, nello stesso anno della morte del Baglioni, le uccisioni, per ordine della corte di Roma, di vari esponenti delle fazioni cittadine a Benevento, a Fermo, a Recanati, a Fabriano, fanno da quadro e commento dell’esecuzione del tiranno di Perugia.” DE CARO


-M. Giubboni. Gian Paolo Baglioni.. Condottiero perugino del 1500 e il suo tempo.

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Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani è l'autore del sito Condottieri di ventura.