sabato, Luglio 20, 2024

Biographical notes on War Captains and Mercenary Leaders operating in Italy between 1330 and 1550

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Hanneken Von Baumgarten: A Legacy Carved in Battle

Italian CondottieriHanneken Von Baumgarten: A Legacy Carved in Battle

Hanneken Von Baumgarten (Anichino Di Baumgarten) is one of the most renowned condottieri of his time (mid-1300s). Cunning, brutal, and audacious. He finds in the Italy of those years, torn apart by the factions between the Guelphs and Ghibellines and by ongoing conflicts among the various states on the peninsula (communes, lordships, kingdoms, Church), an opportunity to offer his services, always ready, however, to change "master" based on his own interests

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Anichino Di Baumgarten/Hanneken Von Baumgarten: Nobility and Battlefront Chronicles.

Hanneken von Baumgarten, known as Hanneken oder Johannes von Bongard (in Italian Anichino di Bongardo or Anichino di Baumgarten) (Bongard, … – October 1375), was a German mercenary leader and captain of fortune, lord of Caraglio.

ANICHINO DI BAUMGARTEN/HANNEKEN VON BAUMGARTEN (Hanneken von Baumgarder, Giovanni di Baumgarten or Baumgarthen, Anichino Bongarten, Anichino of Picardy, Anichino di Bonstetten, Giovanni di Bongardo, Anichino di Bongardo) Of Bongart, near Allrath, in the district of Grevenbroich, in the diocese of Cologne. His family belongs to the minor nobility of Cologne. Lord of Caraglio.

Born: N/A
Death: 1375

Year, monthState, Comp. venturaOpponentConductActivity AreaActions taken and other salient facts
…………MilanFlorenceTuscany, UmbriaHe is noted in the countryside of Cortona with Nolfo da Montefeltro and Gisello degli Ubaldini. He moves to Umbria.
JuneUmbriaIn Pianello.
MayChurchVicoLazioHe serves in the company of Gobbole Cers. He battles the troops of the lord of Viterbo, Giovanni di Vico.
June – JulyMilanPerugiaTuscany, UmbriaBy the end of June, he arrives in Cortona with 2,000 horses. He allies with Pier Saccone Tarlati and other Ghibelline captains such as the lord of Cortona, Bartolomeo Casali, Gisello degli Ubaldini, and the count of Urbino, Nolfo da Montefeltro. They take the road to Gubbio; with a wide detour, the Visconti cavalrymen ride through the valley of the Chiascio river, nearing Perugia. They arrive below Bettona. The Perugians do not attempt to intercept the enemy army for fear of an internal uprising by the local Ghibellines. Defending Bettona is the Guelph, Crispolto dei Crispolti. He believes he has not been treated adequately by the commune of Perugia. In collusion with the abbot of Fonte dei Baglioni and with the Bastard of Mainardo Baglioni, he decides to open the gates to the enemies, driving out the podestà and the garrison placed there by the Perugians.
Apr.SavoyFranceHe is hired by Amedeo of Savoy (the Green Count) to reclaim the castle of Delimieu, in the county of Vienne, which has been seized by Ugo d’Anthon.
Feb.Ravenna, ChurchForlì, Faenza100 cavalryRomagnaHe is enlisted in the Company of the Hopefuls, commanded by Ermanno di Wartenstein. For two months, he serves under Bernardino da Polenta to assist the papal forces against the lord of Forlì, Francesco Ordelaffi. He moves to the region of Faenza. He receives a monthly allowance of 168.5 florins. He heads to the castle of Roncaro.
…………Comp. venturaSan Severino MarcheMarcheHe raids the countryside of San Severino Marche to the detriment of the city’s lord, Smeduccio Salmbeni.
SummerForlìChurchRomagnaHe allies with the Great Company of Count Lando (Konrad Von Landau). Along with Lucio Lando and Amerigo del Cavalletto, he defends Francesco Ordelaffi from the papal militias.
Feb.He passes through the Cesena region.
Mar.SienaPerugia800 helmeted soldiers and 400 infantrymenTuscany, UmbriaHe is hired by the Sienese for 4 months with 800 helmeted soldiers and 400 Hungarian infantrymen. He leads a force of 1,800 helmeted soldiers and a large number of people in defense of Bartolomeo Casali, the lord of Cortona, to free the city from the siege set by the Perugians. He stops for a few days in the territory of Montepulciano. The concerned Perugians set fire to the battifolle (fortified mill) of Camuccia, which threatens Cortona from the southwest. The defenders of the location, seeing the flames (and aware of his imminent arrival), in turn attack the battifolle that overlooks the city from above. The Perugians are forced to take refuge in the battifolle of Mezza Costa and at Orsaia. He enters the Perugian countryside and pillages it. He reaches the Cavaliere bridge over the Chiana, near Città della Pieve, and crosses it before the enemies realize it. He occupies Piegaro and sets many houses on fire; he reaches Panicale, Orsaia, and Olmo. The captain-general of the Perugians, Leggeri d’Andreotto, then decides to abandon the siege of Cortona to avoid being trapped between the forces of Hanneken Von Baumgarten and the defenders of Cortona. The opponents concentrate their forces solely in the battifolle of Mezza Costa.
Apr.TuscanyThe Perugians gather 1,800 helmeted soldiers and many infantrymen (totaling 8,000 men) in the territory of Montepulciano. They set up camp in Gracciano. The Sienese (1,600 helmeted soldiers, many mercenaries, and locals) are stationed at Torrita di Siena. The new captain-general of Perugia, Smeduccio Salimbeni, sends a challenge gauntlet to the Sienese. This challenge is accepted by Hanneken Von Baumgarten; however, the Sienese authorities are rather reluctant about it. They are okay with responding to provocations but not with direct confrontation. From the responses received, the opponents understand that there’s discord in the enemy camp: the Sienese come out for a demonstrative sortie in disarray and without the protection of Hanneken Von Baumgarten’s German cavalry. 40 Perugian cavalrymen seize the hill that divides the two armies. 100 Hungarian cavalrymen, who are always fighting for the adversaries, chase the Sienese away. Baumgarten now decides to support the action of the fleeing soldiers: in a short time, he is surrounded and captured along with his marshal and 50 cavalrymen. The Sienese lose 49 banners, including the commune’s standard. In the combat between the two sides, around a hundred men are killed.
MayTuscanyOnce freed, he is given command of the Sienese army. He retreats to Buonconvento; frees Cortona from the siege; seizes the priory of San Pietro a Petroio in the territory of Montepulciano; and captures many enemies there, who were previously armed knights in Torrita di Siena. This action earns him a reward of 500 florins.
JuneComp. venturaPerugia, San Severino MarcheUmbria, MarcheHe leads 1,000 cavalry and 500 infantrymen to Monte San Savino. He refuses the defenders’ offer to surrender on terms and continues his attacks, in one of which he is seriously wounded by a spingarda shot. According to other sources, the poor outcome of the operations is entirely attributed to him, both for not accepting the surrender of Monte San Savino and for deliberately causing disputes in the camp between his German troops and the other Sienese militias (resulting in 20 casualties among them). Dismissed, he joins Lucio Lando (with 2,000 helmeted soldiers) and raids the Perugian territory: the commune offers him a bounty of 4,000 florins to stop his raids. He breaks into the Marches region towards Fabriano but finds the passages guarded; after eight days, he enters from Fermo into the territory of San Severino Marche and takes revenge on Smeduccio Salimbeni, imposing a heavy ransom on him. He then heads towards Fano.
JulyComp. venturaFlorenceRomagnaHe joins the Great Company of Count Lando. He is defeated at Scalelle.
Aug.ForlìChurchRomagnaHaving escaped capture, he heads towards Fano and joins Amerigo del Cavalletto with the remnants of the Great Company of Count Lando. He opposes the papal forces on behalf of Francesco Ordelaffi.
Sept.Comp. venturaFlorenceRomagnaHe is excommunicated, and a crusade is preached against the mercenaries. He moves towards Romagna; in the Rimini area, he joins another company stationed in Forlì. He plans to move to Tuscany. He is repelled by the Florentines (12,000 infantry, mostly crossbowmen) at the Stale pass. He returns to Romagna, devastates the Val di Lamone, and attacks Modigliana.
Nov.Comp. venturaRiminiRomagnaHe pillages Massa, which is set on fire. He receives provisions from Giovanni Visconti da Oleggio, however, they are only enough to meet the needs of his men. In the end, driven by three days of hunger, he plunges into the Rimini area with Count Lando and decimates the population.
Dec.RomagnaHe stays in Romagna. He spends the winter months there, living off of plundering.
Feb.Comp. venturaCamerinoMarcheTogether with Count Lando, he seizes the castle of Serra San Quirico; threatens Rodolfo da Varano who is forced to pay him 4,000 florins; an equal amount is handed over to the company by Smeduccio Salimbeni. The Great Company now boasts 4,300 helmeted soldiers. They suffer significant losses in the assault on the castle of Falerone; they retrace their steps and attempt to seize Cingoli. Hanneken Von Baumgarten moves back to the Jesi area and sets up camp in Montalboddo (Ostra).
SpringComp. venturaChurchMarcheHe advances towards Fabriano; he compels the cardinal legate Egidio Albornoz to recognize a sum of 50,000 ducats (30,000 within a month) to the mercenaries in exchange for a promise of peace for four years.
MayComp. venturaFlorence, PisaUmbriaHe moves to Umbria to once again join the Great Company of Count Lando. He devastates the territory of Todi and forces the city to hand over a sum of money to him. He positions himself near the castle of Primano. The swollen Tevere river halts the march of both commanders. The Florentines oppose his demands.
JulyUmbria, TuscanyHe moves away from the Perugian region, crosses the Sienese territory, and the land of Volterra with Count Lando, Amerigo del Cavalletto, and Corrado Lando; the Sienese grant him 12,000 florins. He enters the Pisan territory and visits its capital; he reaches Laiatico, Fabbrica, and Peccioli; passes Treggiaia and sets up camp between Ponsacco and Petriolo. He ravages the countryside up to Collesalvetti; forces the inhabitants of Valdera and Valdarno to abandon all their possessions. He sets Cevoli on fire; after a week, Count Lando makes an agreement with the representative of the emperor, Charles of Bohemia, lord of Pisa and Lucca, in the parish of Vicopisano, and 2,000 florins are handed over. Hanneken Von Baumgarten goes to Pisa (entering through the Porta di San Marco and exiting through Parlascio) and to Lucca (to fulfill a vow in the church of the Sacred Heart in that city). He crosses the Arno near Cascina, heads to Montecalvoli, and through Cerbaia, breaks into the Pescia territory, near Borgo a Buggiano, where local farmers are captured, and their livestock is raided. Pandolfo Malatesta opposes him; along with Count Lando, he chooses to leave the location where he had set up camp, known as the “campo delle mosche” (“field of flies”), after being challenged to battle.
Aug.MonferratoMilan700 barbuteLiguria, PiedmontHe crosses the Genoese region and enters the service of Marquis Francesco of Monferrato to fight against Bernabò Visconti. He is granted a contract for 700 helmeted soldiers and a salary of 28,000 florins.
Oct.General CaptainPiedmontHe is given command of the troops following the defection of Count Lando to the opposing side. He has 2,000 men under his orders, including infantry and cavalry. While proclaiming his loyalty, he waits for an opportunity to also switch to the opposing side.
Nov.MilanMonferrato1000 barbutePiedmontHe too betrays the cause of Marquis Giovanni of Monferrato, lured by a greater commission. He takes part in the siege of Pavia. Fra Jacopo Bussolari, the leader of the city’s defense, surrenders, and in the same month, Galeazzo Visconti can enter Pavia at the head of his troops.
Dec.MilanBolognaEmiliaHe is stationed in the Bologna region to the detriment of the Lord of Bologna, Giovanni Visconti da Oleggio.
Jan.Count of SavoyAcaiaPiedmontHe serves under Amedeo VI (the Green Count) against Prince Giacomo of Savoy-Acaia. The contract is signed in Pinerolo: the company costs the Count of Savoy 3,000 florins a month.
Feb.PiedmontHe takes possession of Villar Perosa. He enters into negotiations with the papal representatives.
Mar.PiedmontHe attacks Savigliano with Count Lando: in just a few hours, the 2,000 defenders of the city are overwhelmed by the Germans and the Savoyards, who unleash a horrific looting. The inhabitants are taken prisoner and forced to pay a ransom for their release. Those who resist this imposition, and those unable to pay anything, are dragged away after being grabbed by the nostrils and beaten. Some have their hands cut off, others their feet, and still others their ears. Those from whom nothing can be obtained are drowned. Turin and other smaller centers of the principality (Gassino and Carignano) surrender without a fight. Subsequently, Anichino di Baumgarten occupies the castle of Bonavalle, near Murello, and sells it back to Amedeo of Savoy.
JulyMilanChurchUmbria, TuscanyHe is sent by Bernabò Visconti to the Marche region with 1,500 helmeted troops to aid Niccolò da Buscareto, following threats from the papal representatives of Cardinal Albornoz. Crossing the Niccone valley, he stops for several days at Reschio. From there, he heads towards Cortona, bringing destruction and terror wherever he goes.
Aug.He briefly stops in the Rimini area; he does not proceed to the Marca of Ancona. Hindered by drought, he prefers to accept the 1,400 florins offered by Cardinal Albornoz and leaves Niccolò da Buscareto to his fate.
Sept.ChurchAscoli PicenoEmilia, MarcheHe joins forces with Francesco d’Este between Bologna and Modena. He quickly deserts the Milanese camp to join the papal side. He quells a rebellion in Ascoli Piceno, where a thousand exiles, led by Filippo da Massa (or Filippo Tibaldeschi), have captured the city’s captain, Leggieri d’Andreotto.
Oct.ChurchMilan, UrbinoRomagnaHe returns to Romagna, to Solarolo, near Faenza, with 800 helmeted troops and 300 Hungarian horses; he forces Cardinal Albornoz, who has at his disposal 1,200 helmeted troops and 4,000 Hungarian horses, to recognize an additional sum of 14,000 florins or genovini to spare the region from the raids of his company. Mid-month, he moves to the district of Urbino and from there enters Ravignana; the Florentines immediately strengthen their defenses to prevent any potential attacks on their territory by him.
Nov.Comp. venturaNaplesMarche, AbruzzoHe watches over the Tronto; with Nicola Unghero, he heads towards the Kingdom of Naples, in the direction of L’Aquila, where he has been invited by some barons. He lingers for a long time near Lanciano (with 2,500 horses, both Hungarian and German, as well as many foot soldiers); he faces severe hardships, both due to the lack of provisions and the continuous attacks suffered at mountain passes by the local inhabitants. He threatens the provincial capital, which is defended by Antonio Malavolti with 8,000 men: during this period, Anichino di Baumgarten’s losses amount to 800 men, including both horsemen and mercenaries. He crosses the Pescara and heads towards Puglia: many horsemen and foot soldiers discharged by Visconti and Cardinal Albornoz join him.
Dec.DurazzoNaplesAbruzzo, BasilicataHe enters the district controlled by the Duke of Durazzo. He reaches San Martino, near Sulmona, where the inhabitants sell bread to the mercenaries at a high price. With cunning, he takes possession of the castle and chooses it as a logistical base for his raids: straw for the horses and provisions are found there in abundance. He occupies Acerenza in the Potenza region and many other castles.
…………Comp. venturaNaplesCampaniaHe attempts to take control of Salerno. He is thwarted by the arrival of Angevin militias led by Niccolò Acciaiuoli.
Mar.AbruzzoAt the urging of Luigi di Durazzo, he collaborates with Nicola Unghero. With his company and 3,000 Hungarians, he threatens Teramo, which is now defended by Niccolò Orsini. He fords the Pescara and extends his devastation as far as San Flaviano (Giulianova).
Apr.BasilicataHe retreats to Melfi after Nicola Unghero, at the urging of the grand seneschal of the Kingdom of Naples, Niccolò Acciaiuoli, abandons their alliance in exchange for a promise of 36,000 florins. He fortifies himself in that location and once again begins to ravage the surrounding areas. With the defection of another 400 Hungarian horsemen, he seeks refuge in Atella, a land previously belonging to the Duke of Durazzo.
……………BasilicataHe is attacked in Atella by the Angevins commanded by Niccolò Acciaiuoli.
Jan.BasilicataHe is forced to leave Atella and the Kingdom of Naples. He and his men are allowed to take with them the loot they have accumulated.
Mar.AbruzzoFrom the Abruzzo region, he heads towards the Piceno area.
Apr.MilanChurch, Verona1000 barbuteTuscany, EmiliaReturning to the service of the Visconti, he crosses the Sienese territory, damaging its countryside. As he approaches, the municipality issues a law prohibiting anyone from joining his company, under penalty of being declared a rebel, exile, and a fine of 500 lire. Many exiles, including the Aldobrandeschi, counts of Santa Fiora, are readmitted to the city. In the end, the Sienese recognize his passage and supply provisions to his troops. Anichino di Baumgarten arrives in Parma where he spends a night outside on a wagon, fearing an earthquake. He then gathers all the able-bodied men of the city and takes them to Solara, where he builds a strong fortress. He stores all the food and weapons there for the defenders of the castles in the Bologna area, controlled by the Visconti, who are waiting to be resupplied.
MayEmiliaHe faces the papal forces led by Blasco Gomez.
JuneEmiliaHe repels several attacks on the Solara fortress by Galeotto Malatesta Ungaro.
JulyLombardyHe plans to build another fortress in Solara. However, a revolt by the Guelphs in Val Saviore and Val Trompia, in the Brescia region, suggests slowing down any initiative. He moves to the Brescia area where the rebels receive support from the Lord of Verona, Cansignorio della Scala, with 1,000 helmeted troops from Swabia. Anichino di Baumgarten is defeated by the Scaligers at Smaccano. Among the Visconti forces, 100 helmeted soldiers are killed.
……………EmiliaHe returns to the Parma region.
Jan.MilanMonferratoEmilia, LombardyHe departs from the Parmense region with 1,000 helmeted men; he heads towards the Pavia area following a raid by the White Company of Alberto Sterz, who serves under the Monferrato banner.
……………MilanChurchEmiliaHe returns to Solara and begins the construction of a second fortress.
Apr.Lombardy, EmiliaWith the death of Count Lando at the Canturino bridge, the remnants of the Great Company join his ranks (3,000 cavalry and an equal number of infantry). He moves through the Cremona region; when Bernabò Visconti suffers a hand injury from a crossbow bolt during a skirmish, he joins him at Solara. The lord of Milan leaves the fortress both to seek treatment in Crevalcore and to coordinate from that location the supply flow intended for the castles controlled by his men. Anichino receives orders to wait for darkness before moving. The condottiero disobeys and leaves the location with 800 helmeted men as he no longer intends to set up camp there. Taking advantage of the situation are Galeotto Malatesta Ungaro and Feltrino Gonzaga; they attack the Visconti forces, defeating them and capturing 38 condottieri and 1,000 horses. Anichino di Baumgarten retreats to Formigine.
……………EmiliaHe wages war in the Modena region against the troops of the anti-Visconti league.
Sept.Comp.    ventura, PerugiaSiena, Comp. venturaEmilia, Tuscany, UmbriaHe oversees the reconstruction of the Solara fortress alongside Pagano di Panico. In the same month, he is dismissed by Bernabò Visconti; in Tuscany, he allies with the White Company of Alberto Sterz to raid the Sienese territory. The two condottieri receive 12,250 florins on the promise that they will not touch this territory for three years. He parts ways with Sterz’s company to move to Umbria and accept the salaries of the Perugians. Encamped at the taverns of Olmo are 400 Hungarian cavalrymen, who are set to join the White Company hostile to the commune. Anichino di Baumgarten sends in aid to the Perugians 600 cavalrymen who surprise the mercenaries sleeping in their tents. Of these, 40 men are killed and another 150 are taken prisoner. The survivors flee towards Perugia where they are stripped of their weapons and mounts. The priors intervene, ensuring the return of their previously confiscated belongings.
Oct.OrsiniRomaLazioHe enters Lazio, summoned there by Orso Orsini. He now battles against the commune of Rome; Costanza Orsini hands over eight castles to him. Alongside Orso and Luca Orsini, he raids up to the gates of the city and takes possession of a castle from Aldobrandino Orsini.
Jan.TuscanyBy the end of the month, he is reported to be in Tuscany.
Mar.PisaFlorenceTuscanyHe is urged by Galeazzo Visconti to join forces with the White Company of Alberto Sterz (3,000 helmeted men) and fight against the Florentines, who are in the service of the Pisans. He agrees.
Apr.TuscanyMid-month, he moves with Giovanni Acuto to Val di Nievole at the head of 6,500 cavalry, consisting of English and Germans, and 1,000 citizens of Pisa who primarily serve as raiders. He enters the Pistoia region and attacks Prato. After a skirmish that reaches the gates of Florence, he penetrates into Mugello through the Val di Marina, loots the territory, and occupies Barberino di Mugello. Opposing him are Pandolfo Malatesta and Arrigo di Montfort: Anichino di Baumgarten evades their watch, approaches Florence along the slopes of Monte Morello. He enters Pescia; unsuccessfully besieges the castle of Petraia, but gains control of Montughi and Fiesole.
MayTuscanyHe attacks the Porta di San Gallo in Florence, which is defended by Arrigo di Montfort, Bonifacio Lupo, Manno Donati, and Giovanni Malatacca. Everardo della Campana (Averardo Tedesco) and Guglielmo Cogno repel a sortie by the Florentines who had come out of the barricades against the advice of their captains. Many houses at San Antonio al Vescovo are set ablaze. As night approaches, the Pisans retreat to Montughi and Fiesole. There are festivities, dances, and horse races in the attackers’ camp. On this occasion, Anichino di Baumgarten has himself knighted; in turn, he knights both della Campana and Cogno. He feigns a nighttime offensive to sow panic in Florence; the following day, however, he crosses the Arno and establishes his encampments between Giogoli, Pozzolatico, and Arcetri. He returns to the outskirts of the capital, and an assault he leads on the Porta di San Frediano is easily repelled; he ravages the surroundings. After several days spent tending to the wounded (about 2,000 men), he is forced to retreat due to the resistance posed by the Florentines. From San Miniato, he moves to Incisa and from there to Valdarno; he incurs further losses in a futile attempt to take Terranuova. He traverses the territories of Arezzo, Cortona, and Siena, capturing more prisoners and loot. He then passes through Val d’Elsa and Val di Nievole and returns to Pisa. He stops at San Piero in Campo: subsequent inspections count the losses, which amount to over 600 dead horses and 2,000 wounded, many of whom die later. The mercenaries are owed 60,000 florins by the Pisans for unpaid wages. Given the situation, Anichino di Baumgarten is tempted by an offer from the Florentines (9,000 florins for him, 35,000 for his company, and a total of 70,000 for members of the White Company). He abandons the service of the Pisans and joins the payroll of the adversaries with a promise not to harass Florentine territory for five months. Also following him in this defection are Alberto Sterz, Andrea di Belmonte, and Ugo della Zucca.
JuneComp. venturaSienaTuscanyTogether with Alberto Sterz and Ugo della Zucca, he forms the Compagnia della Stella (a name inspired by a chivalric order founded in France by King John in 1351). Anichino di Baumgarten incorporates this symbol, the star, into his coat of arms. Other German captains such as Giovanni di Raten, Andrea di Rod, and Giovanni d’Aburgo join him. He plunders the Sienese territory alongside the Compagnia del Cappelletto. He stops near the Arbia. The Sienese deliver to the mercenaries 12,250 florins in exchange for his commitment not to enter their territory for three years. The espionage service employed by the Sienese to monitor the company’s movements costs the commune an additional 765 florins.
JulyComp. venturaOrvietoUmbriaHe threatens Orvieto. Giordano Orsini and Ugolino da Montemarte step up to defend the city.
Aug.Comp. venturaSiena, PisaTuscanyHe raids the Sienese territory alongside Alberto Sterz. He collects a ransom of 38,650 florins (in reality, the overall cost of the incursion for the commune of Siena stands at 42,627 florins, including gifts for Sterz and the other captains of the company. This sum provides each of the two German condottieri with a groom, nine mules laden with bolts, and a vast amount of provisions, including wine, waxes, candies, and fodder for the horses). On their part, Alberto Sterz and Anichino di Baumgarten pledge not to invade the territory for 3 years. The duty on meat is raised to accommodate the company’s demands. Baumgarten then heads towards Montepulciano.
Sept.Comp. venturaLazioTuscany, Umbria, LazioSome of his men are robbed: Anichino di Baumgarten demands compensation from the Florentines for the damages they suffered. He enters Ficulle and stays there for 8 days, causing significant damage to the countryside of Orvieto. He takes control of Sutri and Vetralla alongside Alberto Sterz; he then moves to Sabina, thanks to the good relationship he maintains with Orso Orsini.
Oct.Comp. ventura, PerugiaSiena, Comp. venturaTuscany, UmbriaAt the beginning of the month, he returns to the Sienese territory with Alberto Sterz. The two condottieri secure another 26,000 florins. The city hands over some of its citizens as hostages. In addition to the agreed-upon florins, an extra 1,000 are required by Sterz to avoid reprisals. A barrel of wine is gifted to Baumgarten’s soldiers, and splendid presents are given to him. He is now hired by the Perugians to counter the company of Sterz. He departs from San Martino dei Colli and San Faustino (Sanfatucchio); he positions himself at La Pila with 10,000 helmets and 6,000 infantry to monitor the movements of his adversaries.
Nov.Comp. venturaUmbria, LazioAlberto Sterz is compelled to seek an agreement and to leave the Perugian territory within ten days, provided he is supplied with provisions. The captains of the various companies are invited to a banquet in Perugia. At the end of the month, Anichino di Baumgarten enters the territories of Assisi, Spello, Foligno, Bevagna, and Gubbio. While in these regions, it is likely that his troops engage in various military actions, either skirmishing with local defense forces or imposing their control over key strategic points. The movement of such a significant force would also impact the local economies and populations, as the presence of mercenary troops often led to forced tributes, pillaging, and other acts of opportunistic warfare. The historical trajectory of Anichino di Baumgarten and his troops would reflect the broader political and military dynamics of Italy during this tumultuous period.
Dec.Comp. venturaChurchHe harasses various territories subject to the state of the Church.
Jan. – Feb.Comp. venturaChurch, NaplesLazioCardinal Albornoz decides to oppose him and allies with the queen of Naples, Joanna I of Naples (Giovanna d’Angiò), following his incursion into the Church’s Patrimony. He faces the captain-general of the Angevin militias, Gomez Albornoz. This leader enlists a company of Englishmen, with which he manages to prevent any offensive attempts by Anichino di Baumgarten. However, the cardinal’s nephew has to deal with a revolt from the company he recruited. Cardinal Albornoz, in the absence of assistance from the Florentines, finds himself compelled to seek the help of Baumgarten. The condottiero, taking advantage of the situation, doesn’t hesitate to devastate Sabina.
Mar.Comp. venturaVicoUmbria, LazioHe returns to the Orvieto area and conquers Porano; he moves to the Viterbo area with 10,000 men, including cavalry and infantry, and once again takes control of Vetralla at the expense of Giovanni di Vico. The amount of provisions found in that location is noteworthy.
MayComp. venturaSienaTuscanyHe threatens to break into the Sienese territory and ravage it if passage is denied to him. A sum of 1,000 florins is set aside to honor Anichino di Baumgarten and persuade him not to plunder the surrounding countryside. Moreover, he is gifted with sugar, wax, chickens, capons, pigeons, beans, and wine, and provisions are sent to him free of charge.
JuneComp. venturaChurch, NaplesLazio, Umbria, TuscanyThe White Company, under the command of Ugo della Zucca and Andrea di Belmonte, along with the Papal forces led by the nephew of Cardinal Albornoz, Gomez Albornoz, confront him. Anichino di Baumgarten and Alberto Sterz face their adversaries near Vetralla. The siege lasts many days without leading to a decisive action because the men of the White Company refuse to fight due to delayed wages. Baumgarten comes to terms with Cardinal Albornoz; he surrenders Sutri and Vetralla in exchange for a substantial sum of money. He meets in Orvieto with Gomez Albornoz; he then heads to the Lucchese territory where he is met by Florentine ambassadors Lapo dei Rossi and Giorgio Scali. They accompany him with the promise of paying for provisions needed by his men and not causing harm to the surrounding area.
JulyPerugiaComp. venturaUmbriaUgo della Zucca and Andrea di Belmonte hostilely enter the Perugia area with their troops; Anichino di Baumgarten and Alberto Sterz return to the service of the municipality, confronting the English and Hungarians who serve in the opposing company at San Mariano. After defeating them, they lay siege to the local castle. After 2 days, the enemies are forced to surrender due to a lack of provisions, water, and wine. 1,200 cavalry and infantry from Baumgarten’s company escort 1,600 Hungarian and English prisoners to Perugia. Among them, the Perugian authorities select 300 of the wealthiest, who are incarcerated until they pay their own ransom. The others are released without possessions and disarmed. Many of these individuals are killed in revenge by the inhabitants of the surrounding countryside.
Aug.SienaComp. venturaUmbria, TuscanyThere is a new banquet in Perugia attended by, among others, Alberto Sterz and Andrea di Belmonte. Anichino di Baumgarten is granted Perugian citizenship, and the “Osteria del Cervo” is gifted to him. In the city, he lodges in the houses of Giovanni della Piscina. Shortly after, with four flags of municipal cavalry and 1,500 helmets (barbute) of his company, he leaves the territory; he passes through Assisi and, with Sterz, departs for Tuscany to defend Siena from John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto). He receives grand honors in that city. The total cost for a year of the company is estimated at 40,000 florins. The condottiero departs Siena and heads towards the Maremma region to chase adversaries in San Quirico d’Orcia and Sant’Angelo in Colle. He drives Hawkwood away in Magliano in Tuscany; the enemies flee to Liguria and he returns to Siena. He spends many days in the main town, at San Giovanni and Quarto, attending to the wounded. He continues towards Arezzo and Perugia while Sterz heads for Pisa.
Sept.TuscanyHe crosses the lower Valdarno and the Sienese territory. In vain, the Sienese try to hire him to counter the Company of St. George led by John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto) and Ambrogio Visconti. He prefers to head towards Lombardy.
……………ChurchMontefeltroMarcheThe Papal forces hire him for 15,000 florins. He suppresses an attempt by Federico Novello da Montefeltro to seize control of Urbino.
……………Comp. venturaChurchLazioHe occupies Sutri; he devastates Sabina and Tuscia.
JunePerugiaComp. venturaUmbriaHe is hired by the Perugians, along with Alberto Sterz, to confront once again in the territory of Città di Castello the Company of St. George with Ambrogio Visconti, John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto), and Giovanni d’Asburgo (Johan Von Hapsburg).
Nov.MilanEmilia, RomagnaHe returns to the service of Galeazzo and Bernabò Visconti; he joins forces with the Black Company of Ermanno di Wartenstein. He reaches Ferrara and crosses the Bologna area with 500 cavalry and 400 infantry, all poorly armed.
……………Comp. venturaSienaTuscanyHe aligns with the Company of St. George led by John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto) and Ambrogio Visconti.
Mar.TuscanyHe defeats the Sienese at Montalcinello.
Sept.MilanHe leaves the service of the Visconti.
Oct.ChurchLazioHe occupies Fiano Romano. He is hired by the Pope, the Queen of Naples (Giovanna d’Angiò), Perugia, and Siena with 400 helmets (barbute) and 150 infantry. He is granted a monthly allowance of 550 florins (200 from the Papal state, 180 from the Angevins, 90 from the Perugians, and 80 from the Sienese).
Nov.EmiliaIn Bologna. To maintain his friendship, the Sienese provide him with money.
1368Comp. venturaCount of SavoyPiedmontHe moves through the territory of Cuneo.
Feb.MilanFerraraTuscany, EmiliaIn Pisa, where he gathers troops on behalf of Galeazzo Visconti. He departs from the Pisa area with Hawkwood; he stations in the Parma region, in Felino and Calestano.
WinterCount of SavoyMilan, Saluzzo1,200 lances, 600 infantry, 300 archersPiedmontHe is employed for four months by the Count of Savoy (Conte di Savoia) for a compensation of 20,000 florins (with 1,200 lances, 600 infantry, and 300 English archers)
Oct.Comp. venturaLuccaTuscanyHe threatens Tuscany. He demands a ransom of 10,000 florins from the people of Lucca.
Oct.Milan300 lances
Nov.NaplesMilanPiedmontHe serves under the payroll of the Angevin seneschal Niccolò Spinelli to fight against the Visconti forces in Piedmont. He threatens Bra and Cherasco.
Mar.Count of SavoyMonferratoPiedmontHe seizes Caraglio and captures its castle to the detriment of the Marquis of Monferrato. The locality is then granted to him as a fief.
Apr.MilanChurch300 lancesLombardyHe returns to the payrolls of the Visconti to fight against the papal forces. He is granted a command of 300 lances. In the army of the Lord of Milan, there are also another 600 German lances, 300 Hungarian lances, 200 Milanese, 200 from Piedmont (piemontesi), and 300 English, totaling about 1900 lances. He leads the army into the Brescian territory; he moves to Ponte della Nave to block the passage to John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto). He crosses the Chiese River.
MayLombardyAfter an initial success at Gavardo, he is defeated on the River Chiese, at Montichiari, by the combined forces of the anti-Visconti league commanded by Hawkwood (l’Acuto), Enguerrand de Coucy, and Amerigo del Pomerio. He manages to escape along with Gian Galeazzo Visconti. However, Francesco d’Este, Gabriotto da Canossa, and Francesco di Sassuolo are taken prisoner.
Mar. – Aug.MilanChurchPiedmontHe is employed by Galeazzo Visconti for two months. He is granted a monthly allowance of 20 florins. He is sent to aid the defenders of Vercelli, besieged by the papal forces. The enemy troops, urged by the exiled bishop of the city, Giovanni Fieschi, continue to dig tunnels and erect palisades, preventing anyone from entering or leaving the city. The defenders surrender in early August.
……………He prepares for death. He seeks to reconcile with the Church.
Aug.FranceHe receives in Avignon four ordinary indulgences and a plenary one “in articulo mortis” (at the moment of death).
Sept.PiedmontHe is in the vicinity of Moncalieri with a brother of Otto of Brunswick (Ottone di Brunswick).
Oct.GermanyHe obtains a solemn document from Pope Gregory XI, attesting that he was received under the protection of the Papal State. Upon his return to Germany, he passes away in those very days. He is remembered by Lorenzo Spirito in “Altro Marte.”


-“Che fu el magiore traditore che fusse mai in queste parti.” ANONIMO SENESE

-“Il quale fè molti tradimenti al comuno di Siena nell’oste e altrui.” D. DI NERI

“Anichinus era germanus, iam antea longo stipendio per Italiam notus.” PALMIERI

-“Fu uno dei più eminenti condottieri di quelle bande, dette compagnie, che nella seconda metà del XIV secolo sconvolsero le regioni italiane. Scaltro, perfido, audace e sempre unicamente sollecito del proprio vantaggio, trovò nell’Italia di quegli anni, dilaniata da feroci politiche e da fazioni, ampie possibilità di offrire i suoi servigi al migliore offerente.” WALTER

-“Latronum duce.” BEVERINI

-“Allora i Fiorentin tennon trattato/ Con gli Inghilesi e col detto Annichino,/ E que’ che fanno fare ogni mercato. Concordia  fare tra loro e ‘l Fiorentino.” PUCCI

-“Used his exposure to Italian business methods to help his heirs establish the Paumgartner company, a firm of German businessmen who conducted trade between Avignon, Barcelona, Milan and Prague.” CAFERRO

-“Dreaded and brutal.” TUCHMAN

-“Ferocissimo.” CASALIS

Topics: Chronicles of Anichino Di Baumgarten and Hanneken Von Baumgarten, Italian Condottieri in the 14th Century, Medieval War Captains of Italy, Legacy of Anichino and Hanneken Baumgarten, 14th Century Italian Warfare and Conflict, Nobility and Warfare in Medieval Italy

Featured image source: wikimedia

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Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani è l'autore del sito Condottieri di ventura.