sabato, Luglio 20, 2024

Biographical notes on War Captains and Mercenary Leaders operating in Italy between 1330 and 1550

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Gian Giacomo Trivulzio: Mastermind of Italian Warfare

Italian CondottieriGian Giacomo Trivulzio: Mastermind of Italian Warfare

A true soldier and skilled captain, proud, vengeful, vigilant, and prudent, he possesses the rare ability in those times to maintain discipline among the troops under his command, whether they be Aragonese or French. One of the greatest condottieri in the service of the kings of France

Indice delle Signorie dei Condottieri: ABCDEFGIJLMNOPQRSTUVZ

Strategies and Conquests: The Military Legacy of Trivulzio.

Gian Giacomo Trivulzio (1440/41-1518) was an influential Italian condottiero and aristocrat. Notable for his roles in the Italian Wars, he served variously under the Sforzas, the French monarchy, and as the governor of Milan. Trivulzio’s military achievements included significant victories and defenses, although his governance led to his eventual disgrace. He was also a patron of the arts, commissioning works from Bramantino and being associated with a project of Leonardo da Vinci.

Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio, known as Il Magno (the Great), from Crema, a Guelph. Count of Musocco, Belcastro, and Pezenas; Marquis of Vigevano; Baron of Loir; Duke of Melfi and Venosa.

Lord of Castell’Arquato, Basilicagoiano, Torricella, Vespolate, Trecate, Bassignana, Castelnuovo Scrivia, Chiavenna, Musso, Colonno, Lezzeno, Ossuccio, Lenno, Mezzegra, Tremezzo, Villanova di Cassolnovo, Confienza, Borgomanero, Gambolò, Garlasco, Dongo, Sorico, Gravedona, Cropani, Zagarise, Opi, Galliate, Mesocco, Soazza, Basilicanuova. Son of Antonio da Trivulzio; father of Gianniccolò da Trivulzio, Gianfermo da Trivulzio, and Camillo da Trivulzio; cousin of Teodoro da Trivulzio, nephew of Renato da Trivulzio; father-in-law of Ludovico della Mirandola and Antonio Maria Pallavicini. Knight of the Order of Saint Michael. Marshal of France.

Born: 1442 (June)
Death: 1518 (December)

Year, monthState, Comp. venturaOpponentConductActivity AreaActions taken and other salient facts
……………LombardyFrancesco Sforza calls to court and has raised together with his own children some youths from the great Milanese families. Among these is also Gian Giacomo who, from 1451, will accompany the young Sforzas. He enjoys an annual income of 800 ducats. He spends his resources on jousts and tournaments, accumulating a debt of 1200 ducats which will be settled by Sforza. The Duke of Milan has taken a liking to him.
1452MilanVeniceLombardyHe serves under the command of Donato del Conte.
Apr.LombardyHe attends the negotiations for an alliance against the Ambrosian Republic between Francesco Sforza and the Venetians.
Apr.He accompanies the heir to the duchy, Galeazzo Maria Sforza, when the latter first goes to Bologna and then to Florence to pay homage to Pope Pius II.
Aug.MilanRebellious baronsFranceHe follows Galeazzo Maria Sforza to France in the so-called War of the Public Good in support of King Louis XI. He distinguishes himself in an incident that takes place in Lyon, a duel with two Frenchmen who had knocked down two Italians. He throws himself alone against the enemies, overthrows them, disarms them, and frees Giacomo da Cremona who had been taken prisoner by them.
Mar.France, Piedmont, LombardyUpon the death of Sforza, he leaves France with the heir to the duchy, Galeazzo Maria Sforza; he is involved in some adventures at the Novalesa Abbey when the ducal party is surrounded by numerous peasants led by Abbot Agostino da Lignana of Casanova and Lord Ugonino Alamando of Arbeno. Galeazzo Maria Sforza is taken prisoner to the castle, while Trivulzio saves himself by hiding in a small church where he remains concealed for two days. He emerges at night, likely after having bribed the sentinels. During the same days, King Louis XI intervenes with the Duke of Savoy and Galeazzo Maria Sforza is released. The new Duke places Trivulzio in the second order of his chamberlains.
……………LombardyHaving entered the circle of the Duke’s favorites, he obtains, along with Giorgio del Carretto, the command of a small squadron of lances spezzate (The “lancia spezzata” refers to a condottiero who has either lost in battle or had their command of a company taken away, thereby reducing them to the status of a man-at-arms) of the ducal family. Furthermore, Galeazzo Maria Sforza secures for Trivulzio the most sought-after marriage at court, namely to Margherita Colleoni, the twelve-year-old daughter of Nicolino, a Pavese contractor and lender to the Duke, who has a dowry of 7000 ducats.
……………MilanVeniceLombardy, EmiliaHe fights against the Venetians led by Bartolomeo Colleoni.
Oct.He quarrels with some brothers who dispute his possession of the revenues from Pontenure.
Nov.MilanDuke of SavoyPiedmontHe is in Monferrato supporting Marquis Guglielmo of Monferrato against the Savoyards. He witnesses the peace between the parties. He provides a strong surety in favor of the Rusconi.
Sept. – Oct.MilanDuke of SavoyPiedmont, Emilia
Nov.MilanCorreggioEmiliaHe takes part in the siege of Brescello at the head of his squadron of lance spezzate. After this expedition, the number of men-at-arms at his disposal is increased.
Mar. – Apr.LombardyThe Duke summons him to a grand tournament organized for the feast of Saint George. A few days later, in early April, he and Piattino Piatti are stripped of the command of their squads of the family of arms. Both are warned against appearing in public wearing the giornea “of the crowns,” a uniform reserved for the family of arms. Trivulzio soon regains the Duke’s favor, so much so that at the end of the month he is noted at the feast of Saint George. On this occasion, he holds the ducal standards with the squad leaders of the family Giampietro Bergamino, Il Donbello, Guidantonio Arcimboldi, Giovanni Antonio Cotta, Anfitrione Fiaschi, son of Fiasco da Giraso, and Giancarlo Anguissola.
……………MilanChurchRomagnaHe serves in the War of Rimini under the command of Count Federico da Montefeltro of Urbino.
Jan.PiedmontAlong with Marsilio Torelli and Cola Gaetani, he escorts Sforza near Vercelli, where Sforza is to meet with Filippo di Bresse.
……………LombardyTogether with Il Donbello (with whom he shares a chancellor in Galbiate to monitor the grain bulletins), he commands a squadron of lance spezzate of the ducal family. At the head of such troops, Trivulzio is charged with controlling smuggling in the duchy. At the same time, he continues to increase his real estate holdings, focusing on massive purchases of land properties and the occupation of properties belonging to the clergy. With this in mind, in March, he provides a surety of 4000 ducats to the ducal chamber in favor of the heirs of Ettore da Villanova.
1471TuscanyHe escorts the Duke of Milan, Galeazzo Maria Sforza, to Florence, where the Duke stays in the city with his wife, Bona of Savoy.
1472LombardyHe is called, along with Giampietro Bergamino, to be part of the ducal family.
Aug.12 lances (60 cavalry)Lombardy
Oct,EmiliaHe is called, along with Giampietro Bergamino, to be part of the ducal family.
Apr.LombardyGaleazzo Maria Sforza presents him with a livery on the occasion of the feast of Saint George. Along with Bergamino, he accompanies the Duke in his courtly pastimes such as parties, tournaments, and various official celebrations.
Dec.LombardyDue to severe cuts in court expenses, the Duke threatens to remove the provision paid to his courtiers like Trivulzio, Bergamino, Cottino Cotta, and Guido Antonio Arcimboldi. From this moment begins his estrangement from the Duke of Milan, caused, according to his biographers, by the Duke’s licentiousness and the imposition of new taxes.
Apr. – Oct.IsraelRequests permission and embarks on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land with Guido Antonio Arcimboldi.
Nov.MilanBurgundyPiedmontHe engages in combat against the troops of the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, and the Bishop of Geneva. He supports Roberto da San Severino in the siege of San Germano Vercellese. During an assault on the walls using ladders, he is wounded and thrown into the moat.
Dec.LombardyDuke Galeazzo Maria Sforza is assassinated in Milan. Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio remains uninvolved in any intrigue and distinguishes himself through his loyalty to the Duchess. As a result, he rises in honor, becomes a senator, and continues to be a part of the secret council.
Jan.LombardyHe is summoned by Duchess Bona di Savoia to join the regency council alongside Giovanni Pallavicini, Tristano Sforza, and Pietro Francesco Visconti.
Apr.MilanBannishedLiguriaHe follows Roberto da San Severino to Liguria to suppress the rebellion incited by the Fieschi. He proceeds to Busalla with Prospero Adorno to coordinate the advance with his captain. Upon the death of Bartolomeo Quartero, he is entrusted with the command of the latter’s company.
May – JulyGovernor of the lance spezzateMonaco, LiguriaIn Monaco, alongside Giovanni Pallavicini, he encounters Lamberto Grimaldi, who offers to return to loyalty to the Milanese duchy. Subsequently, he confronts Gianluigi Fieschi, who has fortified himself in the castles of Torriglia and Roccatagliata. In June, he meets him in Nervi in an attempt to persuade him to lay down his arms in exchange for forgiveness, a stipend, and a safe passage for 30/40 horses, as well as the release of his brother Obietto, who had been captured by the Sforza forces. The talks prove fruitless, and he proceeds to Quinto al Mare.
In July, he combats the enemies alongside Pallavicini, Pietro dal Verme, and Giampietro Bergamino. He relocates to Rapallo when a revolt in the county forces Fieschi to retreat to Roccatagliata and Torriglia. In a short time, the latter is compelled to surrender both fortresses. Following the successful operations, upon his return to Milan, he is granted control over the tolls on bread, wine, and meat in Varese. He also commands the lance spezzate. During this period, he supports Chancellor Cicco Simonetta against the maneuvers of San Severino, Ottaviano, Sforza Maria, and Ludovico Sforza.
Nov.LombardyHe is invested with Vespolate, formerly owned by Donato del Conte. In return, he commits to recognizing the payment of 400 lire to the counts of Balbiano as compensation for the Val di Chiavenna and other feudal assets and rights.
MayIn Milan.
JuneMilanChurch, NaplesField MarshalTuscanyHe relocates to Tuscany to provide assistance to the Florentines in their war against the Papal forces and the Aragonese. He travels through the region via Pontremoli, making a stop at Olmo near Arezzo. He is appointed as the Field Marshal alongside Niccolò Orsini, Galeotto della Mirandola, and Alberto Visconti.
……………TuscanyHe finds himself in Poggibonsi, where he becomes embroiled in disputes among various captains, hindering any coordinated action. He rides into the Val di Mersa, destroying mills, plundering livestock, and taking many prisoners. He suggests an assault on Siena. After some disagreements with Niccolò Orsini, he approaches the city at night, which is suffering from a plague, with five squads of lances and over 200 infantrymen. He sets fire to around a thousand houses in the outskirts.
Nov.TuscanyHe unsuccessfully opposes the truce initiated by Duke Ercole d’Este of Ferrara with their adversaries. He returns to Milan.
Dec.MilanSwiss CantonsSwitzerlandThe Swiss abandon the siege of Bellinzona and withdraw towards the Mesolcina and Levantina valleys. Despite the orders, he does not pursue the adversaries due to the snowy conditions.
JulyEmiliaHe defends Duchess Bona di Savoia, widow of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, against the combined forces of Ottaviano and Ludovico Sforza, along with Roberto da San Severino. Leading a contingent of 200 lances, he is tasked, along with Giovanni Conti and Giovambattista dell’Anguillara, with relieving the besieged fortress of Montanaro, which falls before their arrival. Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio establishes his camp at the Cento Croci pass and defends Compiano and the Val di Taro. He is besieged in Borgo Val di Taro by San Severino.
Aug.Lombardy, PiedmontHe contacts Ludovico Sforza in an effort to separate him from his allies. When Ludovico moves to Val di Sturla with the intention of heading towards Tortona, Trivulzio departs from Borgo Val di Taro to punish those who aided the enemy by supplying them with provisions. He hangs some of them and sends others as prisoners to Milan. He then reaches Voghera, where he joins forces with Guglielmo di Monferrato and sacks Pontecurone. He subsequently sets his sights on Tortona.
Sept.LombardyLudovico Sforza and Roberto da San Severino enter Milan victorious.
……………LombardyLudovico Sforza values the support of the Guelf Trivulzio, having allied with him against the Ghibelline faction.
……………LombardyHe is called upon to be a part of the new ducal council.
Oct.LombardyAlongside Roberto da San Severino, he maintains order in Milan following the arrest of Duchess Bona di Savoia’s advisor, Antonio Tassini.
Nov.Lombardy, SwitzerlandHe travels to Como and acquires the castle of Musocco (Mesocco) in the Mesolcina Valley from Count Giampietro di Sacco. He strengthens the defenses of this fortress and purchases additional properties in the Rheinwald and Safiental regions, which are controlled by the Grisons, and receives investiture from the Bishop of Chur. Shortly after, Biagio Malacrida entrusts him with the ownership of Musso, with the assurance that he will govern it.
Feb.SwitzerlandVisiting Mesocco.
Jan.MilanSan SeverinoLombardy, PiedmontHe is in Sannazzaro de’ Burgondi, prepared to confront Roberto da San Severino in his own lands. He arrives in Alessandria with 600/700 light cavalry and constructs a bastion in Sale.
Feb.MilanRossi, VenicePiedmont, EmiliaHe lays siege to Roberto da San Severino in Castelnuovo Scrivia. When the latter manages to escape in a sortie, he secures the surrender of the defenders. He shares the spoils with Costanzo Sforza. He then turns his attention to the Parma region and negotiates the acquisition of Colorno, another fief of San Severino. Shortly thereafter, he attacks Pietro Maria dei Rossi and, alongside Costanzo Sforza, besieges the castle of San Secondo Parmense.
Mar. – Apr.EmiliaIn the middle of the month, he assumes command of the troops alongside Bergamino, replacing Costanzo Sforza. He commands 500 infantry, while his colleague has 200. He issues a proclamation against the Rossi family and their supporters, who are considered rebels, and besieges the castle of Sant’Andrea, despite hindrances caused by the rain. He has significant conflicts with the ducal lieutenant, Sforza Sforza. By the end of April, the weather conditions return to normal. He moves to Noceto and bombards the area with artillery. He eventually leaves the field alongside Borella da Caravaggio.
May375 horsemenEmiliaAppointed as the Governor of Parma, he is dispatched to assist Ercole d’Este in facing the Venetians.
JuneEmiliaHe stations at La Stellata under the command of Federico da Montefeltro, alongside other condottieri such as Borella da Caravaggio, Sigismondo Brandolini, Borso da Correggio, Marsilio Torelli, Giacomo Torelli, and Federico Gonzaga. He sends three assassins to Ficarolo, where the Venetian captain general, San Severino, is located, with the intent to kill his rival. Two of them are discovered and hanged, while the third confesses to the entire plot.
July – Aug.Emilia, LombardyHe positions himself in the defense of Pontelagoscuro with 4,000 cavalry and numerous infantry. He remains in the Ferrara region until August when he is replaced by Cottino Cotta due to a syphilis outbreak. He retreats to Casalmaggiore for medical treatment.
Oct.LombardyHe is hosted in Revere by the Marquis of Mantua. Upon his recovery, he returns to action, entering the Bergamo region with 4,000 cavalry and 2,000 infantry. He advances to the gates of the capital, taking numerous prisoners. In just three days, he captures Romano di Lombardia, aided by the connivance of some local residents.
Nov.General GovernorEmiliaHe is recalled to the Ferrara region. When San Severino crosses the Po at Vallice (Bonello) on a makeshift bridge of boats, he learns of this and leaves Pontelagoscuro with 4/7 squads of cavalry and 300 infantry. However, he is easily repelled and forced to abandon the area, taking refuge in Ferrara.
In the same month, he repels Venetian attacks on the capital and fortifies himself in the Certosa and the convent of Santa Maria degli Angeli, from where he engages in skirmishes with Marco Pio. He experiences further conflicts with Sforza Sforza, prompting him to request a return to Milan. Sforza intervenes to calm the situation. He also participates in the defense of Bondeno.
Dec.EmiliaHe is joined in Ferrara by Costanzo Sforza. Soon, he must depart from the Este territory and return to Lombardy. The inhabitants of the Valtellina, prompted by the Venetians, have attacked his fiefs there.
Feb.LombardyHe concentrates his troops in the territory of Soncino.
MayEmiliaHe once again confronts the Rossi family, taking Torricella and Basilicagoiano from them. Ludovico Sforza grants him the latter location as a fief.
JuneLombardyHe returns to Soncino upon the arrival of San Severino in the Brescia region. He moves to Ghiaradadda and from there, he advances with his colonel, who is stationed between Casalmorano, Casalbuttano, Bordolano, Corte de’ Cortesi, San Vito e Modesto, Robecco d’Oglio, Monasterolo, Corte de’ Frati, Binanuova, and Gabbioneta.
Sept.VenetoHe sets up camp near Valeggio sul Mincio with Francesco Secco in an attempt to seize Peschiera del Garda. However, San Severino intervenes with 4,000 cavalry and 2,000 infantry. Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio is forced to retreat from Valeggio sul Mincio. He leaves the field due to delayed payments. He directly commands five squadrons of cavalry.
Nov.LombardyHe is stationed in Bordolano.
Dec.LombardyHe ambushes 500 cavalry led by Giovanni Antonio Scariotto in Martinengo, who are on their way to winter quarters in Crema. They capture 200 horses in the surprise attack.
Jan.LombardyHe strengthens the defenses of Calcio.
Feb.LombardyHe raids under the walls of Crema, capturing 40 men, killing eight, and plundering 280 head of cattle. The spoils are taken to Soncino.
Mar. – Apr.LombardyHe is stranded at the Soncino camp, where serious disorders erupt due to delayed payments. He orders the hanging of some sackmen guilty of robberies and murders. The others, angered by the unusual severity, band together and form a gang with a leader styled as a pope, surrounded by cardinals, archbishops, and bishops. They decide that whenever the cry of “Falcetta” is heard, everyone must arm themselves and kill anyone who dares to confront them. The insurgents are on the verge of forcing Duke of Calabria Alfonso d’Aragona to leave the camp. However, Trivulzio persuades the latter to stay, quells the revolt, has the leader of the insurgents strangled, and personally kills some of them.
MayLombardyHe moves near Pontevico.
June – Aug.LombardyHe attempts to provide assistance to Pumenengo, which is threatened by an attack from Gaspare da San Severino. While at the camp, he uses his influence with Antonio da Marciano to quell a brawl that erupted among the soldiers of their two companies. He initiates the first peace negotiations with San Severino’s allies, which culminate in the Peace of Bagnolo in August.
……………LombardyFollowing the peace treaty, he is appointed as an arbitrator to ensure the restitution of some lost assets to Roberto da San Severino, which were a result of the capture of Castelnuovo Scrivia, and to recognize the payment of old salaries owed to the captain by the Sforza. When called upon to decide the fate of the Rossi family’s properties in the Parma region, he chooses to maintain the status quo.
……………LombardyWith the defeat of Bergamino in the Valtellina by the Grisons, he also heads to that territory, specifically to Vogogna. He is tasked by Sforza and the Grisons to act as an arbitrator in the dispute. The negotiations take place in the Val Mesolcina and Roveredo and result in the Milanese abolishing some tolls.
JuneDoge Paolo Fregoso of Genoa opposes the hiring of Trivulzio by the Banco di San Giorgio to deal with the Florentines. During the year, he receives an investiture from Ludovico Sforza of the Val Mesolcina in Switzerland.
Jan.MilanChurchLombardyHe departs from Lombardy with 200 men-at-arms, 50 crossbowmen on horseback, 50 stradiotti, and 1,000 provisions to engage in combat against the Papal forces in Tuscany.
Feb.TuscanyHe joins forces with the Duke of Calabria in Montepulciano.
Apr.LazioHe rides to Montalto di Castro and plunders 700 head of large cattle and an equal number of small cattle. He also defeats the Papal forces in a skirmish.
MayTuscanyHe, along with Virginio Orsini, besieges Montorio near Sovana. In the vicinity, he engages in a four-hour-long battle with San Severino, the outcome of which remains uncertain. Positioned on the right wing, one of his horses is killed, another is wounded, and he is lightly injured in one hand and one thigh. The intervention of his infantry manages to halt the advance of San Severino’s heavy cavalry, which initially appeared to have the upper hand at the beginning of the battle.
Aug.LazioAt the end of the conflict, he goes to Rome with Cardinal Ascanio Sforza and is hosted by the Cardinal of Sant’Angelo in the Pincian Tower. Days after the official signing of the agreements, he meets with San Severino. Upon learning that San Severino, not included among the pope’s allies, is withdrawing with his companies towards Romagna, he pursues the condottiero.
Sept.UmbriaHe stops in the Perugia region at San Bartolomeo di Solfagnano to witness the duel between Malatesta di Polidoro Baglioni and Miccia Oddi. He shadows the opponent’s troops until they are dismissed in Ronco, and the opponent takes refuge in Ravenna, in the Venetian territory. Trivulzio reaches Forlì with Alfonso d’Aragona and is hosted in the city by Girolamo Riario. Also part of the group are Antonio Maria della Mirandola and Virginio Orsini.
Oct.LazioHe leads an embassy to Rome to meet with Pope Innocent VIII, accompanied by the Archbishop of Milan, Branca Castiglione, and Guido Antonio Arcimboldi.
Dec.CampaniaHe travels to Torre del Greco with the Duke of Calabria and then proceeds to Naples, where he is received by King Ferrante d’Aragona.
Aug.NaplesGeneral governor, lancesCampaniaHe is enfeoffed by the King of Naples with the county of Belcastro (formerly owned by Giovanni Antonio Petrucci) along with Cropani and Zagarise. He is also granted a contract for 500 horsemen with an annual provision of 2,000 ducats. He is appointed as the general governor of the men-at-arms. Teodoro, a relative, is also present at the ceremonies.
MayChurchOsimoLazio, MarcheHe departs from Naples and is received by the Pope in Rome. He comes under the pay of the Papal State to lay siege to Boccolino Guzzoni in Osimo. He has to intervene in a disorderly camp due to delayed payments and disputes among various captains.
JuneMarcheHe orders the clearing of all plants around Osimo and has five Turks who attempted to enter the city hanged. He bombards Osimo with three cannons, which demolish the main tower on the road to Cinque Torri, a ravelin, and a significant portion of the walls.
JulyMarcheThe Papal troops mutiny due to the delay in receiving their dues and abandon the camp. Trivulzio also threatens to leave if money and reinforcements do not arrive within eight days. In reality, he sells and pawns his silverware and other jewelry and with the proceeds, he hires 1,200 infantrymen to replace the deserters. He positions his troops near Castelfidardo and resumes his assaults when a truce expires. After fifty days of skirmishes, he conquers Mount Cipressi, where he places two large bronze cannons that damage the shelter of one of the gates and the surrounding walls. This leads to the surrender of Osimo.
Aug.Marche, LazioHe escorts Boccolino Guzzoni to Senigallia and then returns to Osimo, where he is tasked with overseeing the construction of a fortress. Upon leaving the city, he appropriates two columns of valuable marble, a marble statue along with its pedestal, an inscription dedicated to Emperor Marcus Antoninus, another more valuable bronze statue featuring Asclepius, and, according to tradition, the heads of some statues that are transported to Milan and placed in the municipal palace. Since then, the inhabitants of Osimo have been called “senza testa” (without heads). Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio returns to Rome, where he is welcomed at Ponte Milvio by Franceschetto Cybo, Virginio Orsini, and other Roman nobles who accompany him to an audience with the pope. He is awarded the Golden Rose, a gold necklace worth 1,000 ducats with a pendant consisting of a diamond-studded rose and large pearls.
Sept.Lazio, TuscanyHe leaves Rome with Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere (the future Pope Julius II) and reaches Florence, where he finds accommodation at Santa Croce.
……………NaplesCampaniaHe returns to Naples and assumes the responsibilities entrusted to him by the sovereign on a permanent basis. During the year, following the invasion of the Grisons in Valtellina, the castellan of Musso, Biagio Malacrida, requests protection from Trivulzio, as he is the lord of the Mesolcina and Rhaetian Valleys.
MayLombardyHe marries Beatrice d’Avalos, the daughter of Ignazio di Guevara, the Count of Monteodorisio, and moves to Milan. For the occasion, his palace on Via Rugabella is decorated by Bernardino Scotti.
JuneLombardy, CampaniaHe settles in Milan for a certain period of time but, feeling that he is being overlooked in favor of other favorites by the Sforza family, he returns to Naples.
Dec.CampaniaHe is present in Naples at the proxy wedding between Isabella of Aragon and the heir to the duchy, Gian Galeazzo Sforza. In the city, he comes into contact with the head of the chancellery, the humanist Giovanni Pontano, who leads the Pontanian Academy.
WinterLombardy, Switzerland, CampaniaIn Milan, he learns that the castellan of Mesocco, Gian Antonio Giocaro, has reached an agreement with Arrigo di Sacco to hand over the castle. Informed by his brother Erasmo of these developments, Trivulzio writes to Antonio Giocaro, promising him his daughter Francesca in marriage as a reward for his loyalty. He meets with Francesco Sforza in Vigevano, travels to Mesocco, captures the castellan, and appoints Vincenzo Brocco in his place. He then returns to both Milan and Naples with his sons, Gianniccolò and Francesco.
……………He acquires the Upper Rhine Valley (Rheinwald) and the Strossavia Valley (Safiental) in the territory of the Rhaetian Leagues, being invested by the Bishop of Chur a few years later. He consolidates his position there and strengthens the military defenses. To achieve this, he fosters relations with the Grey League and works to have Mesocco and Soazza admitted to the canton of the Grisons.
……………AbruzzoHe is appointed Viceroy of Abruzzo. He is contacted by the King of France, Charles VIII, who invites him to join his service.
Aug.NaplesFranceGeneral governorUmbria, Marche, RomagnaIn Bastia Umbra, he commands 25/30 squads and, along with the Duke of Calabria, Ferdinand of Aragon, and Niccolò Orsini, he crosses Tuscany and arrives in Pennabilli, where he joins forces with Guidobaldo da Montefeltro. Francesco Sforza, allied with the French, confiscates his properties in the duchy.
Sept.RomagnaHe sets up camp between Cotignola and Sant’Agata sul Santerno and challenges Giovanni Francesco da San Severino to battle, but the challenge goes unanswered.
Oct.RomagnaThe French continue to refuse the battle proposed at Sant’Agata sul Santerno, and, on the other hand, Orsini avoids seeking a pitched battle. He acts in a way that allows the adversaries to pass safely between his camps and those of the Aragonese. At the end of the month, Trivulzio reaches Imola to understand Caterina Sforza’s intentions regarding the league.
Dec.LazioHe is forced to retreat towards Rome, leaving this location with the Duke of Calabria, twenty-two squads of cavalry, and 1500 infantry at the invitation of Pope Alexander VI. He heads towards Tivoli and then towards the Kingdom of Naples with Virginio and Niccolò Orsini.
Feb.FranceNaples100 lances and 100 light cavalryLazio, CampaniaWith the conquest of Monte San Giovanni Campano by Marshal de Gié and the retreat of the Aragonese, he withdraws towards Capua with Niccolò Orsini. While the new king of Naples, Ferdinand of Aragon, rushes to the capital to suppress the beginnings of a rebellion, Trivulzio negotiates with the French. He meets King Charles VIII in Calvi, to whom he promises, on behalf of the Aragonese sovereign, the delivery of Capua, an annual tribute of 100,000 ducats, and the sending of troops to combat the Turks. He has a meeting in Aversa with Ferdinand of Aragon; the sovereign does not accept the conditions he has obtained and releases him from his commitments. Trivulzio then joins the French payroll with his son Gianniccolò, with an annual stipend of 10,000 ducats and the confirmation of the County of Belcastro. He is also granted houses and villas belonging to the Marquis of Pescara, Ferdinand d’Avalos, located in Naples, Aversa, Pozzuoli, and Foggia. He returns to Capua and delivers the city to the French. Niccolò and Virginio Orsini flee to Nola, while he besieges Ferdinand d’Avalos in Castelnuovo in Naples and forces the defenders of the San Vincenzo tower to surrender.
MayFranceVenice, MilanCampaniaHaving sent his wife to Piedmont, he allies with the French, who are retreating from the Kingdom of Naples to make their way back to France.
JuneLazio, TuscanyHe reaches Rome and connects with Gié in Pontremoli. The French militias launch an assault on the castle, resulting in the death of 40 infantrymen. The defenders surrender under certain terms. The Swiss soldiers, remembering that the previous year, 40 of their comrades had been killed by the inhabitants, storm into the city with fury, plunder it, and massacre a large number of citizens. They also threaten the soldiers of Trivulzio who have taken control of the castle with death. Trivulzio attempts to incite a revolt in Parma on behalf of the Sforza family, with the support of the Guelf faction. However, his adversaries try to corrupt him to make him defect to their side.
JulyEmiliaHe sets up camp at Fornovo and, with Marshal de Gié, commands the vanguard consisting of 450 French and Italian lances, an equal number of mounted archers and crossbowmen, and 3,000 Swiss troops. He attacks the combined forces led by Francesco Gonzaga and breaks through their lines. Following his advice, the French leave their supply wagons unguarded to lure the Venetian stradioti into looting, thereby neglecting the battle. He orders the left wing to advance. The French cavalry prevails over the adversaries within an hour. After the victory, he suggests to the French that they pursue the fleeing Italians beyond the Taro River. However, his advice is not heeded. As they withdraw to Piacenza, he ensures the troops are supplied with the support of local Guelfs, using light cavalry for this purpose.
Aug.PiedmontHe stations himself in Vercelli with 40 lances, awaiting the necessary reinforcements to provide assistance to those besieged in Novara by the enemy. He incites a mutiny among 500 Swiss soldiers in the Sforza camp, who enter the city and strengthen its garrison. He is declared a rebel by Sforza and banished from the state. In Milan, he is depicted in multiple parts as hanged by the feet, as is the fate reserved for traitors. On his part, Trivulzio does not recognize the Duke of Milan’s title, referring to him as “Ludovico da Cotignola.” King Charles VIII bestows upon him the Duchy of Melfi, confiscated from Troiano Caracciolo, and symbolically grants him the County of Monteodorisio, given the evolving nature of the war.
Oct.PiedmontPeace is negotiated between the parties after Roberto Boschetti contacts him in Vercelli on behalf of Francesco Gonzaga. He follows the negotiations that lead to the surrender of Novara to Sforza. Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio is absolved of all bans, and his properties in the Duchy of Milan are returned to him. He is bestowed with the title of Duke of Venosa, and Carlo VIII reaffirms his command of 100 lances and 100 mounted crossbowmen, as well as leadership over 3,000 infantrymen. He is once again reported in Vercelli with the king, Camillo Vitelli, and Troiano Papacoda. He later relocates to Asti, where he is appointed as governor with 500 lances. However, the troops soon depart from Italy to follow the sovereign in France.
Jan.FranceHe accompanies the court to Lyon to persuade the king to intervene more forcefully in the Kingdom of Naples. As a reward for his services, he is granted the lordship of the County of Pezenas in Languedoc with an annual income of 5,000 francs. Months later, in November, he also receives the Barony of Loir.
Feb.FranceAt Amboise, he is decorated with the collar of the Order of Saint Michael and is invited to become a member of the royal council.
Mar. – Apr.FranceCharles VIII sends him to Paris, along with Antonio Maria da San Severino, to persuade the city’s parliament of the merits of the war in Italy. He returns to Lyon in April.
MayPiedmontHe returns to Asti with 400 cavalry. His primary concern is to strengthen the city’s defenses and prepare the locality to endure a prolonged siege.
Aug.SwitzerlandHe enters into a treaty of alliance with the League of the Grisons.
Sept. – Oct.100 lancesPiedmont, LiguriaIn Asti, he commands 700 French lances, including his own company. In October, he is granted citizenship and is able to purchase a palace from the local Falletti family. Crossing the Tanaro River with his available troops, he seizes the castle of Brettola. Following intense artillery fire, he forces the surrender of Novi Ligure, defended by 700 infantrymen. The fortress is taken after a five-hour assault, and all the garrison soldiers are killed. He is temporarily halted at the Altare Pass by Gaspare da San Severino.
……………His agent, Placidio Amerino, is captured stealing some Senate notices in Venice, tortured, and put to death.
Jan.FranceMilan, VeniceHe is tasked with assisting Battistino Fregoso and Cardinal della Rovere in their attack on Genoa with 1,000 lances, 3,000 Swiss troops, and 3,000 Gascon infantry. Departing from Asti, he hosts a farewell banquet attended by a thousand people. He obtains the castle of Novi Ligure from Frate da Pavia, causing the city to be abandoned by Giovan Francesco da San Severino. He occupies Bosco Marengo, Frugarolo, and Pozzolo Formigaro, pausing to focus on Liguria as per royal orders. After being repelled at Savona, he heads towards Genoa.
Feb. – Mar.Liguria, PiedmontThe Sforza forces are reinforced by numerous Venetian contingents. Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio withdraws into the Asti region via Nizza Monferrato, having set Castello della Spina, Bosco Marengo, and Frugarolo on fire. He joins forces with Battistino Fregoso and conducts some raids in Castellazzo Bormida. Pressure from Niccolò Orsini, combined with the reluctance of infantry commanders to obey him, forces him to agree to a ten-day truce and return to Asti. During the same period, the Duke of Milan commissions a painter to depict him as a traitor hanged by one foot, with a sign hanging around his neck bearing the inscription “Io son Zoan Iacomo trivulzo, ingrato servitore et traditore il mio signore” (I am Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, ungrateful servant and traitor to my lord). The sign is displayed in various locations in Milan.
Apr.Liguria, PiedmontAlongside Battistino Fregoso and the Serenon, he makes another attempt in the Riviera di Ponente with 5,000 men. They attack Albenga and enter the Marquisate of Finale, but all their efforts prove to be in vain.
Aug.They continue clandestine negotiations aimed at reconciling him with the Duke of Milan.
Sept.Piedmont, FranceHe is summoned to join the royal council meeting held in Vercelli.
Oct.PiedmontHe returns to Asti with 800 French lances under his command. The negotiations with Sforza definitively fail.
Nov.PiedmontStill in Asti, there are discussions about renewing the ongoing truce between the French and the Sforza forces.
Dec.PiedmontHe remains in Asti with Ligny.
Apr.PiedmontThe Venetians offer him the position of Captain General of their troops, replacing the Marquess of Mantua, Francesco Gonzaga. At first, he appears inclined to accept the offer.
May – JunePiedmont, FranceHe expels the subjects of the Duchy of Milan from Asti, and in Milan, he continues to be depicted on the streets as a traitor. He accuses the inhabitants of Spigno Monferrato, Prunetto, and other border villages of raids in the Asti region. He sends protest letters to the Ducal Commissioner of Alessandria, Lucio Malvezzi, and initiates some reprisals that culminate in the sack of Cortemilia. In June, he reaches an agreement with Malvezzi but violates the signed agreements. He travels to Lyon, where he is provided with 60,000 ducats necessary for paying the Swiss mercenaries.
Aug.PiedmontHe is visited in Asti by ambassadors from Sforza, namely Lorenzo da Mozzanica and Agostino da Trivulzio. An agreement for a new truce is quickly reached.
July – Oct.Piedmont, FranceHe is contacted again by the Venetians and requests from the Serenissima the title and the same economic conditions granted to Bartolomeo Colleoni in the past. He meets with the Venetian ambassadors, and they confer upon him the requested position for three years of active duty and one year of reserve. He is guaranteed an annual salary of 60,000 ducats, a command of 200 men-at-arms without the obligation of any review, a personal commission, and 1,000 ducats per year for his wife. In August, the French entrust him with the command of the troops to be deployed in the Kingdom of Naples. He goes to France and is still in Asti with Ligny in October. The French oppose his contract with the Venetians.
Dec.PiedmontHe is secretly approached by Sforza, who sends Giovan Francesco da San Severino under the pretext of seeking one of his daughters in marriage. The objective is to sabotage the Franco-Venetian alliance.
Jan.PiedmontHe visits Turin, where he meets with the Duke of Savoy and the Sforza ambassador. He later returns to Asti.
MayPiedmontHe dispatches 50 lances to assist the Swiss troops who are at war with Emperor Maximilian of Austria.
JuneHe tasks Giano Fregoso with going to Turin and acting as a peacemaker in the disputes between the Duke of Savoy and the Marquess of Monferrato.
JulyFrance, VenicePiedmontHe urges the new King of France, Louis XII, to officially ally with the Venetians against the Duke of Milan, promising the conquest of Lombardy within three months. He denounces the truce. With Aubigny and Ligny, he seizes control of some small castles in the Alessandria region, including Solero, Cordero, and Quargnento, commanding a force consisting of 1,600 lances, 5,000 Swiss troops, 4,000 Gascon infantry, and another 4,000 French infantry.
Aug.Piedmont, LombardyMaintaining strict discipline, he doesn’t hesitate to clash with Ligny, having a French man-at-arms hanged for looting. He focuses on Alessandria, where Galeazzo da San Severino commands 1,200 lances, 1,200 light cavalry, and 3,000 Italian infantry. He captures Spigno Monferrato, with 100 defenders out of 700 killed. Along the Tanaro River, he seizes Rocca d’Arazzo, massacring 500 infantry and 50 men-at-arms to instill fear in his adversaries. During the same period, he also takes Incisa Scapaccino and Castello di Annone, which is handed over by the castellan Donato Raffagnino, corrupted by Trivulzio after only four bombardments.
After demolishing the fortresses, he plunders 800 infantry commanded by Badino and Ottaviano da San Severino in Valenza. He effortlessly captures Bassignana, Caselle, Casteggio, Castelnuovo Scrivia, Pontecurone, Broni, Stradella, Voghera, and Tortona, abandoned by Antonio Maria and Cristoforo Pallavicini. He initiates artillery fire on Alessandria, and in the evening, there is a sortie by enemy light cavalry, repelled with some losses on the part of the French cavalry. After two days, Galeazzo da San Severino flees, allowing Trivulzio to take possession of the city. He advances to Mortara and also captures Piacenza.
Sept.LombardyTrivulzio enters Milan alongside Ligny and 200 French cavalrymen, merely four days following the escape of Sforza. They access the city through Porta Ticinese, receiving a warm reception from the Guelph faction, and eventually dismounting at the cathedral (Duomo). Three days later, French soldiers, stationed at San Francesco, Sant’Ambrogio, and Santa Maria dell’Incoronata, burst into the city. Their arrival is marked by a display of force, causing significant unrest among the populace.
Trivulzio swiftly takes measures to restore order by summarily hanging, without trial, French foot soldiers and horsemen caught pilfering (some bread, a chicken), or guilty of sexual harassment. He lays siege to the Sforzesco Castle, which capitulates without prolonged resistance a mere fifteen days after he had bribed the governor.
In recognition of his services, he is granted a pension, appointed as a Marshal of France, a position left vacant due to his predecessor’s demise. Trivulzio is also awarded the fief of Castelnuovo Scrivia, wrested from the previous owner. Furthermore, Luigi XII bestows upon him Vigevano and the adjacent territory, which includes Villanova di Cassolnovo (acquired from Ludovico Tornielli), Garlasco, Confienza, Vespolate, Borgomanero, and Gambolò. The title of Marquis is conferred upon him in exchange for his relinquishment of the artillery within the Sforzesco Castle, valued at a considerable sum.
After a few days of respite in Vigevano, he eagerly embarks on an extensive hunting expedition targeting deer and roe deer in Gropello Cairoli. Midway through the month, he demands that the Counts, who have fortified themselves in their mountainous estates, surrender Rocca d’Olsizio and Val Pecorara (Zavattarello, Ruino, Romagnese, Trebecco) to Bernardino da Corte as recompense for their treachery. In Milan, he establishes himself within the Sforzesco Castle, occupying adjacent chambers to those previously belonging to the Sforza family. Here, he feasts with select comrades-in-arms, including Ligny, in the very hall where the secret council convened.
Oct. – Nov.LombardyHe reaches Mount Braulio in Valtellina. He prepares to besiege Tirano, where Luigi Quadrio with 500 German infantrymen is defending. He bombards the city with four artillery pieces. The infantrymen assigned to the defense mutiny and open the castle gates to the French. With the victory, Trivulzio sends four banners of Swiss and Grison infantry towards Bormio; they enter the town without encountering resistance. He grants the city an exemption from duties for 500 carts of wine and agrees to halve the census due for ten years. He also has Chiavenna, and in exchange, leaves some neighboring municipalities to the Balbiano family, which he became the owner of through a donation from Francesco Bernardino Visconti. The entire Valtellina is under French control. Trivulzio goes to Pavia, where he is received with all honors. He is also present, along with Aubigny, at the solemn entry of Louis XII into Milan, an occasion in which he has the opportunity to hand over the keys of the city to the sovereign.
Initially staying at the Cassino Scanasio del Trivulzio, the sovereign is received at the Corte Vecchia, where a grand banquet is organized by the most famous cook of the time, Mastro Martino de’ Rossi. At the end of the month, 150 citizens per gate swear allegiance to Louis XII under the portico of the Elephant in the Castle. The King of France is accompanied by Cardinal Georges d’Amboise and the pontifical legate, a cardinal from the Borgia family. In early November, Louis XII returns to France. Trivulzio commits to having the Visconti library in Pavia transported to Paris.
Dec.LombardyHe is elected as the royal lieutenant and also obtains the governorship of Lombardy and that of Parma, within whose territory he obtains Basilicanova as a fief. He establishes his residence in Milan, close to the cathedral, with a guard of 300 Germans. He exercises power in a harsh manner, which fosters discontent among the French. His Guelf status also earns him the aversion of the Ghibellines and supporters of the Sforza family, who are always present in the city. In the slaughterhouse square, he personally kills butchers who refused to pay duties; this episode further tarnishes his image. Similar resentment arises in Piacenza when he intervenes there with 4000 cavalry and numerous infantry in the middle of the month to impose new duties on the citizens. At the Sforzesco Castle, Gascon crossbowmen amuse themselves by using it as a target to destroy the terracotta model prepared by Leonardo da Vinci for the casting of the equestrian monument of Francesco Sforza.
Jan.FranceSforzaLombardySforza, accompanied by Badino Parravicini and Annibale da Balbiano, invades Valtellina at the head of 8000 Swiss troops, 500 Burgundian cavalry, 1500 lances, and many Italian infantrymen. Upon hearing the news, Trivulzio receives 400 cavalry from the Marquis of Saluzzo and fortifies the Milan Cathedral with artillery. He also receives assistance from Savoy and Monferrato. He moves towards Como with Ligny, preparing a lake squadron of four large boats equipped with cannons. His goal is to provide support to Biagio Malacrida, who has barricaded himself in the castle of Musso. Malacrida is defeated, and the castle is plundered and demolished by the forces of Sforza.
With the loss of Como, Trivulzio withdraws towards Milan and seeks refuge, still with Ligny, in the park adjacent to the Sforzesco Castle. He narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by Giovanni Antonio della Somaglia, either thanks to the actions of 60 Savoyard horsemen led by Coursinge or with the assistance of Francesco Bernardino Visconti. He leaves 300 lances and 200 Swiss infantrymen, under the command of d’Espy and Codeber Carre, in the castle and abandons Milan. He sends all his movable assets to his Mesocco castle and relocates his family from the palace on Via Rugabella to the Sforzesco Castle. On his way, he plunders Sedriano and Cusano Milanino, passes through Magenta, Vigevano, and Voghera.
Feb.Piedmont, LombardyHe garrisons Novara with 400 lances and halts at Mortara, awaiting reinforcements expected to arrive from France.
Mar.Lombardy, PiedmontHe sacks Lonate and contacts the Swiss mercenaries serving under Sforza, inciting them to betray Sforza. He leaves Mortara at night and reaches San Nazzaro near Novara, where he, along with Luigi d’Ars, prefers to observe the unfolding events. To provoke the Swiss troops loyal to Sforza, he advises the inhabitants of Novara to open the city gates to the Ducal forces on the condition that they won’t suffer any plundering (contrary to what had been promised to the soldiers in case of the city’s conquest).
Trivulzio conducts frequent raids in Lomellina, moving between Mortara and Novara. He ambushes 500 German infantrymen and 150 light cavalry, capturing Giovanni da Casale and Ottaviano Bonsignori. His strategy of buying time is not understood by French captains like Ivo d’Allègre, who express strong dissatisfaction with his actions.
Apr.Piedmont, LombardyHe is joined at Mortara by La Trémoille and the infantry of the Bailiff of Dijon, Antonio di Baissay. With Ligny by his side, he now commands 1500 lances, 10,000 Swiss troops, and 6000 French infantrymen. He moves to Vercelli and divides his army into two parts, one heading to Trecate and the other to Vespolate. This maneuver serves to cut off the Sforza forces’ supply lines and regain control of the bridges over the Ticino, preventing the enemy from escaping.
The decisive battle takes place at San Nazzaro, where Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio commands the rearguard, and Italian and French infantry clash. The Italian soldiers in the service of the Duke of Milan show signs of faltering. Ludovico Sforza attempts to move his cavalry to support them, even considering deploying the Swiss mercenaries under his payroll. However, the Swiss refuse to fight, followed immediately by the Landsknechts, causing great confusion in the Milanese camp, spreading to the cavalry.
All of this unfolds as the French army advances in a compact formation. The French cavalry outpaces the Sforza cavalry and cuts off any retreat route towards the Ticino River. The ducal forces retreat in confusion into Novara. Some units defend valiantly, while others flee north. Approximately 4000 to 5000 casualties occur on both sides. Among the captured, disguised as Swiss soldiers, are Sforza, Galeazzo, Gaspare, and Antonio Maria da San Severino.
Trivulzio has Sforza brought before him and reproaches him for his past actions. He stops at Trecate to maintain control over the disorder caused by German and Burgundian soldiers, formerly in Sforza’s service, who demand payment. At the end of the month, he returns to Milan through Porta Vercellina with the new governor, Cardinal de Rouen. He returns to his palace on Via Rugabella at Porta Romana.
As compensation for the damages suffered during the revolt, he is granted the possessions of all subjects of his domains who facilitated the enemy’s cause. He participates in a war council held in Abbiategrasso, focusing on public order, where the French and Burgundians are forbidden from entering Milan. Following the victory at Novara, a medal is minted. One side features Trivulzio’s head, and the other side reads, “Expugnata Alexandria: deleto exercitu: Ludovicum Sfortiam Mediolani ducem expellito. Reversum apud Novariam steruit, capit.”
MayLombardyHe assists Cardinal de Rouen in Pavia and Como, where he, along with La Trémoille, negotiates an agreement with the Swiss regarding Bellinzona.
June – Nov.Marshal of the heavy cavalryFrance, LombardyIn early June, Galeazzo Farré is executed by quartering for his guilt in plundering the Trivulzio residences during the brief return of the Sforza forces. Trivulzio travels to Grenoble for a general council of the crown, and in July, he relocates to Lyon. He once again falls out with Ligny. His ambition drives him towards the lordship of Pisa, leading him to persuade the king to grant him a free hand in the city. In November, he is allowed to leave Blois and return to Lombardy, where he takes a rest in Vigevano.
All his political positions are stripped from him. The palace on Via Rugabella, damaged during recent turmoil, is redecorated with a commission to Cristoforo Solari for six new marble medallions. Nearby, the Lentasio monastery is renovated with the addition of a beautiful Bramantesque portico.
Dec.LombardyHe returns to Milan to pay his respects to the French governor and obtains authorization to engage in an exchange with Pierre de Rohan to acquire some fiefs in the Milanese territory.
……………FranceSwiss CantonsLombardy, SwitzerlandHe confronts the Swiss forces who have set fire to many houses in Dongo and Gravedona. He advances swiftly to Lugano, a city torn apart by factional strife. He moves to Ponte Tresa with the Spanish commander Roche Martin, leading 100 lances and 4000 Lombard and Piedmontese infantrymen. He repels the enemies from Locarno, causing the Swiss to withdraw to Bellinzona.
Sept. – Oct.Trentino, LombardyHe leaves Milan with the Cardinal de Rouen, heading towards Trento for peace negotiations between the French and the Imperial forces. However, he cannot proceed beyond Rovereto because he is denied a safe conduct by the Imperial side. As a result, he returns to Milan.
Mar.Lombardy, EmiliaAt the beginning of the year, he assembles a flotilla of boats on Lake Como and stations a garrison of Gascon infantrymen at Tre Pievi, successfully gaining control of Lake Como. In March, Luigi XII grants him lordship over Castell’Arquato.
JuneEmiliaIn Parma, he assists his son-in-law Ludovico della Mirandola in returning to Mirandola and establishing his rule there, with the expenses being borne by Ludovico’s brother, Giovan Francesco.
JulyLombardyIn Milan, alongside the French sovereign.
Aug.LombardyIn Pavia, he attends the duel between Federico Gonzaga from Bozzolo and Pirro Gonzaga. He intervenes unsuccessfully, along with Chaumont and Marshal de Gié, in an attempt to dissuade the two contenders from their intentions.
Nov.LombardyHe is associated with the governance of Milan alongside Antoine de Baissay. During this period, he declines an offer from the Florentines to join them in military action against the Pisans.
Feb.LombardyIn Milan.
Mar. – JuneFranceSwiss CantonsLombardy, SwitzerlandThe Swiss forces reappear, as usual, threatening the borders of the Duchy of Milan. They demand the artillery located in the Mesocco Castle. To prevent it from falling into their hands, he ensures it is deactivated. With the loss of Locarno, he moves with the garrison from Gallarate, 300 light cavalry, and 26 pieces of artillery to set up near Bellinzona.
JulyEmilia, LombardyHe meets in Parma with La Trémoille and Francesco Gonzaga, preparing to invade the Kingdom of Naples. Later, he is in Vigevano, where he seeks treatment for a serious illness.
Dec.He requests the Venetians to grant him the same privileges in the territories of the Serenissima Republic that his relative Renato da Trivulzio had already enjoyed.
Jan.LombardyHe is found ill in Vigevano and remains there. His presence in the same location is noted again in the following February.
……………LombardyHe sends one of his sons with some armed men to confront a band of bandits, but they are defeated. He travels to Varese to review his companies. He sells Basilicanova to Troilo dei Rossi for 4500 lire.
Feb.LombardyHe is in Lodi for a jousting tournament in which six French champions compete against six Italians.
JuneLombardyIn Milan.
Oct.LombardyHe takes over the governance of Milan in the absence of Cardinal de Rouen and Chaumont (Carlo d’Amboise), who are engaged in a conflict with the Bentivoglio in Emilia. During the year, Leonardo da Vinci returns to Milan. He accepts the commission from Trivulzio to create his monumental tomb surmounted by a bronze equestrian statue. Leonardo resumes his studies and considers, as he did in the past for a similar commission from Ludovico Sforza, two versions: one with the rearing horse and a second with the horse in a walking pose. However, in this case, the sculpture is not realized.
Apr.FranceGenoa100 lancesPiedmont, LiguriaHe departs from Asti to move towards Liguria.
MayLombardyHe enters Milan with Luigi XII and hosts a grand celebration in honor of the king in his palace. All the roads leading to his palace, from Malcantone and Sant’Eufemia, are decorated with triumphal arches and columns. A pavilion is also constructed in the square of San Nazzaro and Celso. The festivities organized in honor of the king cost Trivulzio the sum of 50,000 ducats.
Oct.Emilia, LombardyHe is in Parma, where he initiates the construction of 13 new bastions within the city walls. Due to the projected expenses, he is forced to abandon the encasing of the masonry and instead builds these structures in wood covered with compacted earth. At the end of the month, he returns to Milan, where a French captain and an engineer from Pisa, Giacomo Nuvalino, are tasked with overseeing the progress of the construction.
Dec.Emilia, LombardyHe returns to Parma in the middle of the month with 100 men-at-arms and 200 mounted archers. His company, entirely composed of Italians, sets up their lodgings in San Paolo. He himself is hosted in Porta Nuova at the house of Giovan Francesco Garomberto in the district of San Tommaso. Alongside Galeazzo Pallavicini, he attends the display of the company of Iacopo Corso, which takes place at the Prato della Nunziata.
Following the arrival of 1200 German infantrymen, who are moving from Trentino towards central Italy through the Venetian territory, he stations himself in the Parmesan region with his men to block their progress at the border of the Duchy of Milan. The German infantrymen take refuge in Bozzolo. Trivulzio meets with Francesco Gonzaga in Viadana and continues his journey to Milan. During his time in Parma, none of the creditors are satisfied with their requests for reimbursement related to the expenses of maintaining the soldiers.
Jan. – Feb.France, VeniceEmpireLombardy, Veneto, TrentinoHe is sent by the king with 400 French lances and 3000 Spanish and Italian infantrymen to aid the Venetians in their war against Maximilian of Austria. He crosses through the Cremonese and Mantuan territories, reaching the Venetian territories from there. He has a meeting in Valeggio sul Mincio with Orsini, Malvezzi, and the provveditore Giorgio Emo, and he connects with the allies in Bussolengo. Together with Orsini and the provveditore generale Andrea Gritti, he inspects the passes of Brentonico and Rovereto, and his troops cause significant damage to the local population.
Mar.TrentinoHe inspects Serravalle all’Adige, Ala, and Castel Pietra, and he quarters himself behind the Venetians at the mouth of Val Lagarina on the line connecting Rovereto with Riva del Garda. He sends troops to defend the second center, where the convent and the Church of San Francesco are bombarded for two days by 2000 infantrymen led by the Bishop of Trento, Giorgio di Neideck.
Upon learning of the treachery of some Spanish soldiers, Trivulzio intends to dismiss soldiers of that nationality. They protest, and two guilty individuals who have been reported by their own comrades are discovered. Their heads are impaled on two lances placed in front of Castel Pietra.
Apr.TrentinoDisagreements arise between Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio and Niccolò Orsini regarding the terms of the alliance between the French and the Venetians (defensive or offensive?). Consequently, coordinated actions between the two contingents become impossible. To the point where the French refuse to allow their allies to use 2000 infantrymen, who are, incidentally, paid for by the Venetians, for an attack on Castel Pietra.
Trivulzio negotiates with Orsini and acquires the castles of Agresta and Castelnuovo through an agreement. On Easter day, he organizes an assault on Castel Pietra with 2500 men, including crossbowmen, cavalry arquebusiers, men-at-arms, stradiots, and two pieces of artillery brought to the forefront. Meanwhile, 3500 Venetian infantrymen under Giovambattista Caracciolo assault Calliano but are forced to retreat in the face of the defenders of Castel Pietra and the reinforcements coming to their aid from Trento. Trivulzio also decides to withdraw and retreats to Rovereto.
May – JuneTrentino, Veneto, LombardyAfter several unsuccessful raids, he moves to Riva del Garda and initiates talks with the Imperial forces, which conclude in June. He leaves the front with 4000 infantrymen, 400 light cavalry, and 400 lances, reaching Peschiera del Garda, where once again his men cause damage to the surrounding areas. Further damages occur in Brescia. In the middle of the month, he passes in front of the gates of the capital of Sant’Alessandro with 12,000 men, including Spaniards, French, Gascons, Italians, and stradiots. He arrives in Pontoglio and returns to the Duchy of Milan. The French camp is often disrupted by clashes between Italians and Spaniards. Andrea Gritti accompanies him to Milan.
JulyLombardyHe welcomes the King of France to Milan, once again in a splendid manner.
Aug.LombardyInvited to go to France, he stops in Vigevano, citing various pretexts. He moves to the Mesolcina Valley and procures ammunition and supplies in Mesocco. He also obtains a flotilla of three boats with which he patrols and defends the Lake Como basin from north to south. Finally, he takes possession of the castle of Musso.
……………PisaFlorenceTuscanyHe is sent by Chaumont to Pisa with 300 lances, not so much to aid the Republic against the Florentines but to prevent its collapse before the Pisani deliver 100,000 ducats to the King of France.
Nov.LombardyA Milano. Nel corso dell’anno ottiene le miniere di ferro di Dongo. La moglie Beatrice d’Avalos, a Vigevano, è la benefattrice del convento di Santa Maria della Misericordia in cui viene aperta una scuola per l’educazione delle fanciulle.
Apr.FranceVeniceGovernor General with 100 lancesLombardyIn Lodi.
MayPiedmont, LombardyGian Giacomo da Trivulzio met with Luigi XII in Asti, accompanied by Antonio Maria and Galeazzo Pallavicini. He continued to appear alongside the king in Milan during a mass at Santa Maria delle Grazie. Crossing the Adda without encountering resistance was made possible because Bartolomeo d’Alviano‘s troops were busy sacking Treviglio, and Niccolò Orsini had halted his advance, choosing to remain in a fortified camp. Trivulzio was confident of ultimate victory as he had encountered no obstacles crossing the river.
He then turned his attention to Rivolta d’Adda (which was set on fire), Vailate, and Pandino, aiming to cut off the enemy’s supply lines from Crema to Cremona. Leading the vanguard with Chaumont (500 lances and 6,000 Swiss troops), they attacked Alviano, who had 800 lances and veteran infantry, at Agnadello, while Orsini moved between fortified camps. In the initial stages, the French appeared to be losing to their opponents. However, with reinforcements led by the king himself (another 500 lances), the tide of battle turned in favor of the French. The Venetians suffered a heavy defeat.
Trivulzio, leading the cavalry, attacked Antonio Pio’s column, which consisted mostly of select troops from Brescia that had arrived in the camp just three days earlier. Soon, the lines of these troops disintegrated as they fled. In the three-hour battle, few men-at-arms were killed, along with 6,000 Venetian infantrymen, including condottieri Piero del Monte and Saccoccio da Spoleto. Zitolo da Perugia was wounded, and Bartolomeo d’Alviano was captured. The French also seized 23 cannons.
At the end of the month, Trivulzio entered Brescia through the San Giovanni Gate, accompanied by Francesco Gonzaga, Galeazzo da San Severino, Luigi Avogadro, and Marco da Martinengo. He stood beside the King of France during his solemn entry into the city with 5,000 infantrymen and 10,000 cavalry.
JuneLombardy, VenetoGian Giacomo da Trivulzio besieges the fortress of Cremona; moves to Peschiera del Garda and Desenzano for fear of the plague present in the French camp. He conquers the fortress of Legnago.
JulyLombardyLuigi XII returns in triumph to Milan after the victorious battle of Agnadello. As with the ancient Roman generals, Trivulzio has a medal minted with his equestrian statue on a rearing horse, now preserved in the Trivulziana Collection.
Aug.VenetoIn Verona, he takes lodging in the district of San Zeno with Ludovico della Mirandola (600 lances). He moves to Valeggio sul Mincio and Isola della Scala with 300 lances; he stops in this locality waiting for 3000 infantrymen. Each of his transits is marked by the damage his men cause in the territory they pass through. Many peasants of Villafranca di Verona are killed, and more than 4000 heads of cattle are plundered: the peasants’ houses, moreover, are full of objects stolen from the country houses abandoned by their owners for fear of the war.
AutumnVenetoIn Peschiera del Garda.
Jan.VenetoHe releases the Venetians Giovanni Gradenigo, Alessandro Zorzi, and Felice Calbo; he sends them to Venice with one of his envoys for the purpose of conducting a prisoner exchange. For the release of the patricians, Vincenzo Naldi, and 2 other condottieri, 14 French captains are set free.
Feb.Lombardy, EmiliaIn Mantua and Mirandola. In the latter location, he is hosted by his daughter Francesca.
Apr.He frees, without the payment of any ransom, some Venetian rectors captured in Lombardy: before letting them leave, he hosts them for lunch with his son Gianniccolò.
MayLombardy, VenetoHe reaches Goito with 1200 Swiss troops; he has a pontoon bridge built at Ostiglia to escape the vigilance of Giovanni Paolo Gradenigo. He heads to Polesine with la Palisse and Ivo d’Allègre. Enters Rovigo and Montagnana where the provveditore Andrea Baseggio is freed in exchange for Biasino Crivelli.
JuneFranceVenice, Church, Swiss CantonsVenetoIn anticipation of a descent by the Swiss mercenaries hired by the opponents, he once again attends to the defenses of Mesocco Castle. Having then recovered from a brief illness, he sends 8 men-at-arms to Montagnana to release Giampaolo Manfrone in exchange for Boissy; he prepares to attack Monselice. He is near Cittadella; his light cavalry clash with the enemies; in the French ranks, 40 men are killed.
JulyVenetoHe is reported at the camp of Santa Croce Bigolina on the Brenta with 100 lances and 200 Swiss; provisions are lacking, and he must withdraw. He arrives at Vicenza with Chaumont, occupies Monselice, and aims for Este.
Aug.General captainVenetoWith the departure of Chaumont, he takes command of the army, leading it towards San Bonifacio and Legnago; at Lonigo, he receives orders to continue the campaign despite his desire to return to Lombardy; he returns to Vicenza. He refuses to move when the Prince of Anhalt, on behalf of the Imperials, asks him to transfer to Friuli. The threat of the Swiss on the Lombard border leads Chaumont to recall him to Milan with his 100 lances, 2000 arquebusiers, and 2500 infantrymen.
Sept.LombardyHe is in Como with la Palisse. He retreats in front of the Swiss to position himself on the banks of the Adda and better oversee the construction of a pontoon bridge: he forces the Venetians to retreat with 100 lances and 600 infantrymen.
Oct. – Nov.Lombardy, FranceIn Vigevano and in France where he is summoned by Louis XII. His relationship with Chaumont becomes more effervescent.
Dec.Lombardy, EmiliaIn Milan. He is spurred to move to help the Duke of Ferrara, Alfonso d’Este, with 450 lances; he leaves from Parma, touches Correggio, and from there attempts to provide relief to his daughter Francesca, besieged in Mirandola by the Papal and Venetian forces.
Jan.EmiliaHe cannot prevent the fall of Mirandola, whose garrison of 400 infantrymen, commanded by his relative Alessandro da Trivulzio, surrenders on terms to the Papal forces personally led by Pope Julius II. His men are repelled by the Venetians under Troilo Savelli; they are pursued near Carpi, and the adversaries seize a good booty. Trivulzio reaches Parma and, from there, heads towards Reggio Emilia with 800 lances and 6000 infantrymen. Still in Parma, where he is tasked with Chaumont to calm the spirits of the men-at-arms of Luca Savelli and Muzio Colonna, who are in uproar due to the killing of a fellow soldier by Astolfo Tagliaferri.
Feb. – Mar.General captainEmilia, LombardyHe crosses the Secchia over three bridges; in Guastalla, he gathers 8000 infantrymen to join the 2000 Gascons already in his ranks; he moves towards Carpi, Correggio, and Bagnolo in Piano. In March, he camps at Revere; he enters the Mantuan territory with the support of Francesco Gonzaga. This movement forces the allies to retreat, leaving garrisons at Sermide and Mirandola. Trivulzio aims for Modena and Bologna. Chaumont dies; he now has command of the operations. He boosts discipline and takes the offensive with 1200 lances, 2400 light cavalry, and 9500 infantrymen, of which 2500 are Landsknechts led by Georg Frundsberg. At Sermide, to support the action of Alfonso d’Este.
Apr.EmiliaHe throws a pontoon bridge between Stellata and Ficarolo and has another built by the Estensi in front of Bondeno. He dispatches Gaston de Foix, nephew of the French king, to raid the enemy territory with 100 lances, 400 light cavalry, and 500 infantry up to the barriers of the Bondeno camp. The initiative fails due to the flooding of the Po and the cutting of the dykes by the Venetians. He retreats to Cavezzo, recalls 2000 German infantry from Verona, and requests the enlistment of 3000 Grison infantrymen: he is not satisfied because the French court hopes for peace.
MayEmiliaHe captures Concordia in one day with 1200 lances and 7000 infantry; he besieges Bomporto and sends Gaston de Foix to Massa Finalese with 300 infantry and 500 cavalry. He crosses the Panaro and camps at Gaggio; turns towards Piumazzo, stops near Casalecchio di Reno, captures Castelfranco Emilia in one day; with little resistance from Francesco Maria della Rovere and the general provveditore Paolo Capello, he aims for Bologna with Teodoro da Trivulzio in the vanguard and Gaston de Foix in the rear guard. He stops on the Reno at Lavino. Bologna rebels against the Papal forces; the Landsknechts of Frundsberg also arrive at the camp. The following morning, the battle at Casalecchio di Reno begins, marking a defeat for the allies (death of 3000 enemy infantrymen, capture of captains such as Orsino Orsini and Giulio Manfrone, and seizure of a large booty in terms of horses and artillery, namely 2200 steeds and 40 pieces of various calibers). He enters Bologna; imposes a ransom of 40,000 ducats on the city, heads to Castel San Pietro Terme and Imola.
JuneEmilia, LombardyHe recovers the castle of Mirandola and restores it to his daughter Francesca; he prevents the Imperial governor of Modena, Vitfurst, from entering the castle with 200 German soldiers and taking possession of it as requested by Giovan Francesco della Mirandola. He also gains Concordia. He sends 500 lances and 1300 German infantrymen under the command of Jacopo di Ems to defend Verona and dismisses the remaining forces, except for 2500 Gascon infantrymen under the command of Molard and Francesco di Maugiron, distributed in various parts of Lombardy.
JulyLombardySummoned by the king to Milan, he resigns his position as lieutenant and captain-general in favor of Gaston de Foix. He refuses to join forces with the Imperials.
Aug.LombardyHe intervenes in favor of some members of the Crivelli family who have killed some Frenchmen in a brawl.
Sept. – Oct.LombardyHe is first in Brescia and, subsequently, in Crema. He is re-elected as the governor of Milan.
Nov. – Dec.LombardyGian Giacomo Trivulzio, along with Gastone di Foix and Teodoro da Trivulzio, assembles 500 lances, just over 2000 infantrymen, and a few artillery pieces in Milan. They march against 16,000 Swiss troops advancing from the border, making their way unopposed towards Varese, Gallarate, and Busto Arsizio with the intention of reaching the Papal States. When Lautrec and La Palisse are defeated at the Boffalora Bridge over the Ticino River, Trivulzio establishes his quarters in Legnano. In December, he relocates to Milan.
Rather than engaging in a direct confrontation, Trivulzio initiates negotiations for the return of his adversaries to their own territories, demanding 100,000 ducats and 30,000 measures of wheat. The Swiss, feeling abandoned by the Papal and Venetian forces, return to their cantons after plundering several towns.
Jan.PiedmontHe confronts the Swiss troops at Domodossola.
Feb.LombardyFollowing the reconquest of Brescia from the Venetians, he promptly moves against the adversaries. He keeps Bergamo loyal to the French cause and achieves similar successes in Crema and Cremona, where he reinforces the local garrisons. When Gastone di Foix recovers (and plunders) Brescia, Trivulzio exerts pressure on him to ensure that the same fate does not befall Bergamo. King Louis XII settles for a fine, with some sources citing 30,000 ducats and others 60,000. Trivulzio launches an attack on the castle of Pontevico and pays a visit to the Provveditore Andrea Gritti, who was taken prisoner during the city’s sack, while in Brescia.
Mar.EmiliaHe crosses the Po at Brescello and initiates contact with some Venetian friends for a separate peace negotiation. His illness becomes so severe that, initially, he is thought to have passed away.
Apr.Tuscany, LombardyAfter recovering, he travels to Pisa to visit his sick son and then returns to Milan. During the Battle of Ravenna, his adversary’s nephew, Ferdinando d’Avalos, is captured. Trivulzio urges the King of France to allow him to be ransomed for the sum of 6,000 ducats.
JuneLombardyThe French forces are now facing difficulties; German mercenaries abandon their ranks on the orders of the Emperor. La Palisse retreats from Pizzighettone to Sant’Angelo Lodigiano and Pavia in the face of the larger enemy forces. Trivulzio departs from Milan with Antonio Maria Pallavicini and Galeazzo Visconti after convening a general council in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. He continues to pursue a cautious approach, advising a withdrawal and refraining from giving specific orders. He takes refuge in Asti with 800 cavalrymen, awaiting the anticipated reinforcements.
Sept.FranceHe requests 600 men-at-arms and 10,000 infantry from Louis XII to regain control of the Duchy of Milan. For his military actions, he is excommunicated by Pope Julius II.
Oct.Trivulzio takes the initiative in promoting an alliance between the French and the Venetians with an anti-Spanish objective. He arranges a meeting between Gritti, who is still a prisoner, and Louis XII.
Nov. – Dec.PiedmontHe meets with representatives from the Swiss cantons in Turin. In December, he travels to Susa, and on the diplomatic front, he sends his chancellor, Costante Ferrero, to Venice.
Jan. – Mar.SwitzerlandHe continues his efforts to persuade the Swiss to break their alliance with the Papal and Spanish forces. He makes a stop in Chur (where he lodges at the inn of the “Uomo Selvatico”) and disputes with the Grisons over the territory of Chiavenna. He travels to Altdorf and Lucerne but cannot advance further. He is declared a rebel by the Emperor for his holdings in Switzerland.
Apr.FranceMilan, Spain, EmpireFrance, PiedmontHis negotiations with the Venetians prove to be more successful. He meets with Bartolomeo d’Alviano and Teodoro da Trivulzio in Cahors. Crossing the Alps with the French army, now under the command of La Trémoille and consisting of 1500 lances, 800 light cavalry, and 15,000 infantry (8,000 Germans and 7,000 French), he arrives in Asti.
May – JunePiedmont, Lombardy, FranceHe besieges Novara, where Giovanni Gonzaga and the Duke of Milan, Massimiliano Sforza, have 12,000 Swiss mercenaries under their payroll. Trivulzio’s artillery pounds the city walls, and frequent sorties by the enemy repel the French attacks. As in the past, there is a contrast between the enthusiasm advocated by the French captains, such as Roberto de la Marck, and his own suggestions aimed at prioritizing caution and ensuring supply line operations rather than seeking a pitched battle.
He convinces La Trémoille to position the French camp behind Ariotta, near an abbey and the Mori Canal. Later, they move to Trecate, still within his territory, amid ditches and irrigation canals, making it difficult for cavalry movements. The Swiss, numbering 10,000, under the command of Mottino, decide to launch a nighttime assault on the French camp, which consists of 1,200 lances and 20,000 infantry. They form three squares in the center and on the left, with the largest on the right, facing the square of the Landsknechts.
The Gascon infantry, unsupported by cavalry, gives way, and the German infantry is surrounded and defeated. Trivulzio, who is wounded, and La Trémoille give the signal to retreat after two hours, fearing that reinforcements from Altosasso might arrive for the enemy. In the battle, 1,500 Swiss soldiers, including Mottino, and 10,000 infantry, including Gascons, Germans, and French, with most casualties occurring while attempting to flee, lose their lives. Twenty-two artillery pieces and all the carriages are also captured.
Trivulzio takes refuge in Vigevano and Asti with 7,000 men before eventually moving to France.
Sept.FranceHe is summoned to Lyon, where he is appointed governor following La Trémoille’s defeat in Burgundy at the hands of the Swiss. He initiates negotiations that ultimately result in no significant outcome. Trivulzio will hold the position of governor in Lyon until the year of his death.
Nov. – Dec.FranceIn November, he is reported to be in Dijon and Narbonne. In December, he meets with the King of France in Paris.
Jan.FranceUpon the death of Louis XII, the new King of France, Francis I, grants him new revenues in France amounting to 6,000 francs. Trivulzio is also present at the coronation ceremony of this monarch.
Mar.FranceHe supports Lautrec, who commands 800 lances, in Burgundy against the Swiss.
Apr. – July100 lancesFranceIn Lyon, he is joined by Lautrec, La Palisse, and the Constable of Bourbon, commanding 1,000 lances and 10,000 infantry, prepared to transfer to Italy. In July, he is in Dijon, where he uses artillery to traverse a challenging path between Urbayette and the Stura di Demonte, a route previously used only by shepherds and never by cavalry.
Aug.France, PiedmontA team of 12,000 sappers work on the path for several days to make it more manageable for the soldiers. In just five days, the artillery is transported across the Alps into the Marquisate of Saluzzo without encountering any resistance, as the Swiss forces have positioned themselves in Susa to monitor the Moncenisio and Monginevro passes. Arriving in Villafranca di Piemonte with 400 lances, he catches Prospero Colonna and Cesare Fieramosca off guard, taking them as prisoners. He then passes through Alessandria, Tortona, and Vercelli, where he enters alongside the vanguard of the Constable of Bourbon. He proceeds to besiege the castle of Novara and swiftly conquers Novara, Vigevano, and Alessandria.
Sept.LombardyHe departs from Pavia and arrives at San Cristoforo, where the Milanese patricians pay homage to him. He presents himself at Porta Ticinese with the intention of inciting a rebellion in Milan against the Sforza rulers. He sets up camps in San Martino in Strada and Melegnano. In Lodi, he participates in a war council with the king, the Constable of Bourbon, Alençon on one side, and Bartolomeo d’Alviano with Teodoro da Trivulzio representing the Venetians on the other.
During the Battle of Melegnano, he fights as part of the right wing and distinguishes himself once again for his zeal. His mount is killed, and at one point, he is at risk of being taken prisoner. On the second day of the battle, he orders the moat protecting the French troops, positioned more prudently against the Swiss compared to their previous positions, to be filled with water. This battle proves to be the bloodiest of those years, resulting in the deaths of 8,000 to 14,000 Swiss soldiers and 3,000 to 6,000 French, including numerous captains.
With the victory secured, Trivulzio is now able to enter Milan after one of his heralds risked being hanged by the Swiss for delivering a surrender ultimatum. He receives the king upon his entry into the city and sends Tempestino to besiege the fortress of Vigevano.
Oct.VeniceMilan, Spain, EmpireGeneral captainLombardyUpon the death of Bartolomeo d’Alviano, he joins the Venetian forces (4,500 infantry) during the siege of Brescia, leading 700 lances and 7,000 infantry. Appointed as the captain-general, he sets up camp in Sant’Eufemia della Fonte, alongside the provveditors Giorgio Emo and Domenico Contarini. He reproaches his relative, Teodoro, for choosing to assault Brescia as the first target instead of Verona.
In an incident, he orders the hanging of four stradiotti who were guilty of robbing a Spanish ambassador possessing safe conduct from him. Trivulzio falls ill while at the camp.
Nov.LombardyOnce he has recovered, he dismisses the Landsknechts who are unwilling to fight against the Imperial forces. In their place, the King of France, after a meeting in Milan with his relative Teodoro, sends 5,000 Gascon infantrymen. Trivulzio resumes the continuous bombardment of Brescia using 42 artillery pieces positioned on four sides (Sant’Eufemia, towards the castle, San Fiorano on the mountain, Mombello).
A sortie by the Spanish forces from the Garza side causes the Venetians to retreat, despite the resistance led by Giampaolo Manfrone, resulting in 300 casualties among them. The defenders destroy the gun carriages, throw the artillery pieces into the moats, and set the ammunition on fire before retreating within the city walls. During the night, the Venetians manage to recover only 13 cannons, and they salvage another 10 from the moats.
Recognizing the futility of the operation, Trivulzio withdraws to Coccaglio, awaiting the arrival of 8,000 men, including Gascon infantry and mercenaries under the command of Pietro Navarro.
Dec.LombardyMoney becomes scarce, and in order to raise at least 2,000 ducats, he pledges his silverware. From Germany, in support of the defenders, 7,000 German infantrymen arrive, including 5,000 carefully selected ones. Trivulzio orders the control of all passes and negotiates with the city garrison for surrender on the condition that no reinforcements arrive within twenty days. He moves to Ghedi, where he dispatches the larger-caliber artillery pieces and all the carriages.
Due to his age and the chronic delay in payments, disorder increases in the camp. The Venetians offer Giano Fregoso his freedom. Trivulzio requests permission to leave the operations, but the Venetians, given the situation in the camps, do everything in their power to dissuade him from his intention.
Jan.He sends Pietro da Parma to Venice to the Collegio dei Pregadi, and the funds advanced by Trivulzio for the soldiers’ pay are returned. Although invited to stay in the camp by the king, he tightens the siege around Brescia more and prevents the city from receiving supplies from the outside.
In the same month, a war council is held in Milan, attended by Andrea Gritti, his relative Teodoro, Giano Fregoso, and Pietro Navarro. The decision is made to keep the troops in their winter camps and block the access routes to Brescia until the more favorable season arrives. In the meantime, they focus on disruptive actions.
Feb.LombardyHe accepts Teodoro da Trivulzio as the governor-general and returns to Milan. Before departing, he issues a proclamation that includes the punishment of hanging for anyone caught carrying messages or anything else into or out of the city.
Mar. – Apr.LombardyThe Emperor descends into Italy with 15,000 Swiss mercenaries and is at the gates of Milan. In support of the French, despite the government’s contrary advice, another 12,000 Swiss soldiers intervene. Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio energetically oversees the defense of the city, concentrating all the troops within it. Monza is also abandoned.
The Emperor lacks the means to sustain the campaign for long and soon withdraws to Tyrol. A courier working for Trivulzio deliberately allows himself to be captured, and letters addressed to the Swiss captains Giacomo Stapfer and Goldhill are seized. These letters clearly reveal agreements for their defection. The enemy troops disband, plundering Lodi and Sant’Angelo Lodigiano, but Milan is saved.
During the same period, Trivulzio uncovers a conspiracy in the city organized by individuals close to the imperial party, many of whom are hanged. He loans nearly 5,000 ducats to Gritti, which are needed for paying the Venetian infantry.
May – Dec.LombardyHe remains in charge of guarding Milan with 100 lances and 1,500 infantrymen. As the undisputed leader of the Guelf faction, he serves as the lieutenant of the duchy on two occasions in the absence of Lautrec, from May to December of this year and from June to September of the following year.
In June, he obtains lordship over Gravedona, Dongo, and Sorico. In July, he meets with four ambassadors from the Grisons to negotiate a possible alliance. In August, he attends the funeral of Cardinal Federico da San Severino. In October, he concludes an agreement with the Grisons, securing his possession of the aforementioned locations, and in November, he regains control of the Val Mesolcina.
However, he is unable to reach a similar agreement with the 13 Swiss cantons. Upon his return to Milan in December, he imposes a forced loan of 200,000 scudi on the citizenry, achieved by imprisoning the most resistant taxpayers.
Jan.LombardyPeace is signed between the French and the Spaniards, and as part of the overall reduction in war expenses, 10 lances from his company are also disbanded. He meets with Lautrec in Cremona and confers upon him the collar of the Order of Saint Michael.
MayHe rejects an offer from Pope Leo X to become the captain-general of the Papal State, feeling that he is too old for such a responsibility.
JulyConcordiaMirandolaEmiliaHe is in Mirandola, defending against the Ghibellines and Giovanni Francesco della Mirandola the rights claimed over the locality by his daughter Francesca.
Sept.LombardyLautrec, who has returned to governing the duchy, imposes a new tax of 100,000 ducats on the citizens, including 50,000 for tariff increases, to be paid to the Swiss as stipulated by the peace treaty. Trivulzio refuses to give his consent; he also refuses to hand over Castelnuovo Scrivia to Galeazzo da San Severino, which he had intended for his nephew Gianfrancesco, as it was an ancient fief of his late son Gianiccolò. However, King Francis I returns the locality to San Severino.
During the same period, Lautrec describes him to Francis I as a man aspiring to dominate Lombardy. He argues that Trivulzio’s friendship with the Venetians and his recent alliance with the Grisons, which includes terms for the reconstruction of Musso Castle and the establishment of a mint there to fund the work, are evidence of his ambitions.
Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio heads to the Valtellina because the Grisons, with the help of Matto da Brinzio, have taken possession of the Tre Pievi. They attack the house where Matto has taken refuge, and Matto da Brinzio tries to escape across the rooftops but is discovered and killed with a shot from an arquebus.
Nov.He contemplates retiring to his fief of Vigevano.
MayLombardyAt Lautrec’s house, he negotiates an agreement with Giulio da San Severino concerning the issue of Mirandola, where his daughter Francesca had previously been expelled from the city’s government.
JuneSwitzerlandHe travels to Mesocco to visit a sick nephew. From there, he reaches the Grisons’ territories to negotiate a new league with them, particularly aimed at defending his interests as a feudal lord. This arouses suspicion among the French to the extent that, when Lautrec falls ill, he is only allowed to visit him with difficulty. In the same month, he renounces the march of Vigevano in favor of his nephew Gianfrancesco.
SpringLautrec and Galeazzo Visconti travel to France to lend stronger support to the accusations against him. During the same period, the Parliament of Paris, which has been delegated by the king to make decisions regarding the Castelnuovo Scrivia dispute, rules against him and orders him to pay compensation. Feeling unwell due to kidney stones, he avoids being seen in Milan. He later renounces the position of Chief Huntsman in favor of Galeazzo da Birago but faces rejection from Francis I, who appoints someone else to the role.
Oct. – Dec.FranceHe travels to France to appeal to Francis I. He crosses the Val Mesolcina, and the French fear an armed rebellion from him. Upon entering France, he is arrested. In Milan, during the same period, Lautrec places his wife and nephew Gianfrancesco under house arrest. Trivulzio falls out of favor due to Chateaubriand’s intrigues. After being cleared of charges and released, he unsuccessfully attempts to meet with the king. In Chartres, he is unable to secure an audience and gives up the alliance with the Swiss, granting half of his company to his natural son Camillo, who had also accused him at court. The other half goes to his nephew Alessandro. He dies in early December in Chartres-sous-Monthléry, about twenty miles from Paris. His son Camillo is the first to suspect that his father was poisoned in the house of the General Tax Receiver. Trivulzio refuses to be examined by the king’s physicians until the end. He is given solemn funerals by King Francis I. His body is displayed for four days in the Church of San Francesco. His remains, escorted by a herald of the king and all his relatives, arrive in Vigevano halfway through the month and are then taken to Milan. Giovanni Lombardo organizes the apparatus erected for his funeral. The funeral is celebrated with a procession that moves from the mortuary chamber in Sant’Eustorgio to the church of San Nazaro in Brolo (San Nazzaro and Celso) in a chapel by Bramantino. The church is adorned with two tiers of galleries on the sides of the nave, and the catafalque is created by Giovanni Pietro da Gallarate. The expenses for the ceremony amount to 4,000 ducats. Present at the funeral are his relatives Teodoro and Lautrec, with Ettore Visconti being the only one among the attendees not wearing mourning attire, instead ostentatiously wearing a different colored garment than black. The funeral oration is delivered by Antonio Telesio, a rhetoric teacher in Milan. Trivulzio’s bones were removed from his tomb twice, and their whereabouts have been lost. In 1503, he commissions Bartolomeo Suardi, known as Bramantino, to create the series of Tapestries of the Months, which are put in place starting the following year in Vigevano, thanks to the master tapestry weaver Benedetto da Milano. These tapestries are now preserved in the Sforza Castle in Milan. He tasks Cristoforo Solari, known as Il Gobbo, with sculpting six marble medallions for the palace on Via Rugabella. He is depicted in portraits by Bernardino dei Conti, Giovan Gaspare Pedoni (in Cremona), and Pinturicchio in Castel Sant’Angelo, Rome, alongside Niccolò Orsini and Cesare Borgia. There is also a commemorative medal of Cristoforo Foppa, known as Il Caradosso. Trivulzio is introduced to literature by the humanist Guiniforte Barzizza. Starting from 1499, he combines his military activities with a patronage role, hosting intellectuals at his court such as Valla, as well as minor poets and humanists like Antonio Maria Sturioni. He receives sonnets in his honor from Partenio Parravicini and Girolamo Volpe. Piattino Piatti dedicates “Epigrammata” and his “Epistole latine” to him. Pietro Terni writes his “Historia di Crema,” and the falconer Giovan Pietro Belpasso da Vigevano presents him with a Codex of Falconry, now housed in his rich library, the Biblioteca Trivulziana, currently preserved in the Sforza Castle. Even Angelo Callimaco writes a panegyric in his honor, featuring a miniature of Trivulzio on horseback.


-“Gian Giacopo Trivulzio was a classical scholar who took a historical interest in his profession.” TAYLOR

-“Era conosciuto per superbia e implacabile severità militare.” CANTU’

-“Era Gian Giacomo Trivulzio uno di quegli uomini i quali non hanno amici ma o devoti ammiratori, o accaniti accusatori. Cattivi all’ubbidire, eccellenti al comandare, facili verso l’uomo abbattuto, ma quanto meno aborrenti dell’altrui avvilimento altrettanto sdegnosi di ogni eguale; di quegli uomini in somma i quali hanno bisogno di una continua operosità e fortuna per coprire i minori difetti, e son tutto quando ottengono quasi a viva forza, gloria, onori, riverenza ed affezione: ma guai ad uomini così fatti quando cadono nel vivere privato. Restano loro i vizi acquisiti nell’esercizio del potere, e manca il potere che l’aveva prodotti…Di animo fu superbo, iracondo, violento, parziale, più atto a conquistare stima e morale preponderanza, che a conservarla..Era uomo da non volere e proseguire sia il bene sia il male, se non se sempre con foga e pienezza. Generoso, liberale, amico dell’ordine, prode, attivo, severissimo, sovente soccorreva i soldati col proprio denaro, sovente colla propria spada li castigava.” RICOTTI

-Con Niccolò Orsini e Virginio Orsini “Celeberrimo tota Italia, ac gloria militari clarissimi duces.,Natura nimis insolens.” BEAUCAIRE

-“Uomo a giudizio di tutti (come avevano confermato molte esperienze) di valore grande nella disciplina militare, e sottoposto per tutta la vita alla incostanza della fortuna, che ora lo abbracciava con prosperi successi, ora lo esagitava con avversi; e a chi meritatamente si convenisse quello che, per ordine suo, fu inscritto nel suo sepolcro: riposarsi in quello sepolcro Gianiacopo da Triulzi, che innanzi non si era mai riposato.” GUICCIARDINI

-“Quest’uomo sarebbe stato senza dubbio il più celebre e il migliore dei condottieri italiani se non si fosse attirato l’odio e la maledizione implacabile dei suoi compatrioti quando, per primo impose alla sua patria il giogo di una gente straniera…Il quale essendo pieno d’ogni qualità di virtù fu nondimeno per questa incomparabil lode chiarissimo, che spesse volte senza ferita de’ suoi ruppe eserciti grandi de’ nimici..Antico e gran Capitano.” GIOVIO

-“Il Trivulzio fu un gran soldato, un signore magnifico e d’animo reale. L’ambizione sua però fu rivolta più a soggiogare i nemici viventi ed a vendicarsene, che a procacciarsi una fama generosa presso la posterità..Con la sua ambizione rovinò la patria, scaccionne i naturali suoi duchi, e la immerse nelle miserie che l’afflissero per più di un secolo. Egli non ha diritto veruno alla nostra riconoscenza.” VERRI

-“A me pare il primo leone che sia estimato in questo exercito, zoé in le cose che dipendono da la militia.” SANUDO

-“Chef du parti français en Lombardie, et qui, vieilli sous les armes, avait conservé la réputation d’un infatigable et habile capitaine.” MIGNET

-“Era questo Trivulzio di bassa statura et di colore vivo, col naso adunco et alta fronte; non adornato di mondezza, ma di virile et militare virtù risplendente; iracondo, animoso, liberale in sua gioventù, ma in senectute scarso divenuto, ancora che ricco fussi di circa un milione e mezzo d’oro.” PRATO

-“Famoso per la sua avarizia, avrebbe..risposto a Luigi XII di Francia, che voleva invadere il Milanese: Pour faire la guerre avec succés, trois choses sont absolument nécessaires: premièrement, de l’argent, deuxièment de l’argent, et de troisièment de l’argent.” TOSI

-“Il quale, a quei tempi era in grandissima riputatione, per la multa isperienza, che era stimato avere delle cose militari.” PARUTA

-“Gentil-homme de Milan bien apparenté, bon cappitaine et grand homme de bien.” COMMYNES

-“L’era..assai robusto, picolo, ed alquanto grosso. Si delectava de lettere, aveva un ragionar facetissimo, dittava benissimo e brevemente e nel parlare sempre interseriva qualche autorità istorica ovver pratica e, nello scrivere, qualche bella e grave sentenza. Expediva facilmente, e non era mai in ozio; accarezava cadauno e con bona gravità e, benché fusse cogitabondo, sempre tamen stava alegro. De l’arte militar era expertissimo.” ALBERI

-“Milanese, etiam lui expertissimo in le arme per essere antiquissimo in simel mestiero.” PRIULI

-“Grandissimo signore in Lombardia, e capitano famosissimo per molti generalati.” DI COSTANZO

-“Est un grand capitaine italien, toute les fois très-bon François, et qui fit de tres-grandes monstres d’armes poue le service da la France.” BRANTOME

-“Egli fu il maggiore nelle cose della militia, c’havesse questa famiglia..Fu supremo per i servitii fatti da lui alla corona di Francia.” SANSOVINO

-“Tal fu il Trivultio, già d’Insubria honore/ mentre al mondo mostrò forze e consiglio./ Nacque in riva al gran Po tanto valore:/ Et fu di Marte e di Bellona Figlio./ Tre volti hebbe, e tre alme, e per favore/ Del ciel, tre volte doppio anco l’artiglio./ Tal che tre volte morto esser dovea:/ L’uccise a un colpo solo l’invidia rea.” A.F. Rinieri. Da un sonetto raccolto dal GIOVIO

-“Eccellentemente tanto in progresso di tempo con egregi fatti divenne illustre, che tenuto era tra primi Capitani di quella età.. Fu il Trivultio di statura alta e quadrata; e assai forte; di volto bianco; d’occhi castagnicci e di capelli neri.” ROSCIO

-“Fu..questo Triulzo l’ornamento, e splendore dell’Italia nel mestiero de l’arme.” FINO

-“Capitano di gran grido.” LETI

-“Eccellentissimo capitano.” MAZZELLA

-“Capitano di gran fama.” ROSEO

-“Magni nominis ducem.” ANGELITA

-“Inter Insubres familia ortus, litteris ac liberalibus disciplinis juxta atque doctissime eruditus, prima munia militaria sub Galeacio Sfortia admodum adolescens strenuissime exercuit; animo ingenti, gloriae et honoris cupidus, laborum patientissimus; adeo ut ab negotiis nulla eum voluptas unquam remorata sit; summae vigilantiae, vitae frugalioris, corpore vegeto, ac tereti, toroso pectore, facie elata, altitudinis ingenii incredibilis, firmae memoriae, rarae eloquentiae, in conviviis splendidus ac lautus, in omnes liberalis et munificus, fidei cultor ac observantissimus. His virtutibus, suis charus, apud exteros clarus habebatur..Viro bello et pace clarissimo.” FLORO

-“Dux alioquin egregius et bellator insignis.” A.M.GRAZIANI

-“Viri magni nominis.” CIRNEO

-“Valoroso guerriero.” MARTORELLI

-“Uno dei più distinti capitani del suo tempo.” BOSI

-“Uno’ de’ famosissimi e valorosissimi guerrieri dell’età sua.” GHILINI

-“Animo excelso, ut inimici interpretabantur, inquieto, opibus nimiis.” RIPAMONTI

-“Bello paceque gestarum claritate rerum insignis, magnoque ad peregenda omnia ingenio natus..Omne bellica virtute praestantem, omnique castrensi scientia praeditum.” ARLUNO

-“Miser giacomo anchora capitano/ con molti armati vien hor franchamente/ per discacciar il duca di Milano.” RINUCCINI 

-“Era il treulzo alla coda de fanti/ & pare nella vista un drago fiero.” Da ” La rotta dei veneziani in Lombardia” in GUERRE IN OTTAVA RIMA


-“Ipse in armis valens plurimum.. strenuous ille in armis et valens.” RIPALTA

-“Trivulce étoit le plus fin et le moins endurant des seigneurs Italiens.” VARILLAS

-“Piccolo di corpo ma ben fatto, di fronte spatiosa, naso rilevato, con alquanto di zazzera, quale si vede in una medaglia di mano di Caradosso Foppa ed in un suo ritratto dipinto da Leonardo da Vinci.” LOMAZZO

-“Gentiluomo principale di Milano e il più eccellente Capitano che avesse l’Italia.” CASONI

-“Detto il magno Trivultio, per la grandezza di suoi fatti, che furono immortali…Fu nell’arte della militia invincibile…si ritrovò in diciassette fatti d’arme, e di sedici ne riportò gloriosa vittoria, cosa nel vero degna di meraviglia: che pochi se ne ritrovano scritti nell’historie computando anche i capitani romani ch’habbino trionfato de sedici fatti d’arme.” MORIGI

-“Il qual era uno de li grandi condutieri de lo re (de) Franza.” DE’ BIANCHI

-“Schivo dell’altrui regno/ Forte il Trivulzio armò l’arco Francese/ E ‘l suo Milan fé segno:/ Or se chiamarlo è degno/ Forse crudel mentre l’Italia offese,/ Certo non vil nelle guerriere imprese.” CHIABRERA

-“Vray soldat et expert Capitaine.” BELLE-FOREST

-“Non guardò ad altro, né hebbe altro nella sua mente d animo generoso, che la libertà della patria di Milano.” PUCCINELLI

-“Clarus domi militiaeque.”RUCELLAI

-Con Girolamo da Trivulzio “Caballeros milaneses foragidos, enemigos de su duque y capitanes de gente de armas del rey de Francia.” SANDOVAL

-“Genere et factis clarus.”ALBINO

-“Rinomato generale di armata.” TALLEONI

-“Segnalato Capitano…capitano maturi d’anni e d’esperienza.” VERDIZZOTTI

-“Huomo singulare.” SANTI

-“S’acquistò…nome di capitano eccellente.” BALDI

-“Gran general Milanese.” BURRIEL

-“Valoroso maresciallo.”BIFFIGNANDI

-“Sperimentato capitano.” CERRI

-“Diventò uno dei più celebri capitani del suo tempo.” GALANTINO

-“Uomo agli Italiani d’infausta memoria e nemico personale del Moro (Ludovico Sforza).” SOMMI PICENARDI

-“Illustre e famoso capitano.” DE LELLIS

-“Capitano di somma esperienza e valore.” MAFFEI

-“Sobrio, vigilante e prudente, il quale aveva il raro merito di contener in disciplina le truppe.” G. ROVELLI

-“Fu il Coriolano del suo secolo.” A-VALLE

-“Teneva in Vigevano residenza a ricevere li suoi redditi e altri negozii pertinenti al suo dominio; faceva stampar monete e Musocco, nelle quali era scritto “Io. Iacobus Triultius marchio Vigevani et Franciae marescalcus.” NUBILONIO

-“Che nel’armi è tanto ardito/…/ Ioaniacobo traulcio il vecchio franco/ come un leon ferito intorno andava/ hora dal dritto, hora dal sinistro fianco/ per agiutarsi, e poco li giovava/ perché i suoi cavallier veniano a manco/ sì la sguicciara turbba i molestava/ da tutti i canti con tanto flagello/ che pareva quel loco un mongibello.” DEGLI AGOSTINI

-“Capitano di gran nome.” CALCAGNI

-“Era orgoglioso e vendicativo…Non sapeva frenare l’ira, e abusava in tal modo della sua autorità da rendersi odioso…L’amore della gloria e una forte ambizione lo portò sempre ad essere fedele alla Francia. Il Trivulzio fu di tempra adamantina…Figura eroica ed avvincente la sua vita fu tutto un privilegio di signorilità, una severità austera di costumi…Fu grande soldato; visse soprattutto tra i suoi militi guidandoli con fermezza ed ardimento in tante battaglie.” BIGNAMI

-“Veggendo le milizie per la soverchia indulgenza e dolcezza indisciplinate, disubbidienti, restie alla fatica, e ad ogni eccesso anche più vergognoso rivolte, cominciò ad ammonirle, a gastigarle anche con severità che pare soverchia, e sopra tutto a tenerle in continui esercizi e movimento, ora facendo suonare a battaglia anche in tempo di notte, ora ordinando un finto assalto, ora facendo empir fosse, appianar alture, e tutto ciò per indurarle alla fatica, e toglierle all’ozio. Lagnavasi la soldatesca, è vero, di tanto rigore, ma pure ubbidiva dal timor vinta e dal rispetto verso d’un comandante che all’età di settanta e più anni, precedeva tutti col proprio esempio quasi fosse un vil fantaccino.” ROSMINI

-Alla battaglia della Bicocca “Il signor Joan Jacopo gridava/ Voltatevi canaglia che vi è incarcho,/ Et subito l’insegna lui pigliava/ Con un forzer d’oro e argento carco/ Fece portar via e spesso lui giurava/ Per S. Catalina e per S. Marco,/ Che farò vendetta avanti ch’io moro/ Di Svizzeri e di questo putto Moro.” Da un poema riportato dal ROSMINI

-“Destinato a passare alla storia come il Magno…Uno dei più abili condottieri.” MORO

-“Un ottimo uomo di guerra.” SCARDIGLI

-“Il quale gran celebrità in questa guerra (in difesa di Bona di Savoia) si acquistò per il valore e l’ingegno.” LEO

-“Tenuto era tra i primi Capitani di quella età.. Fu il Trivultio di statura alta, e quadrata: e assai forte: di volto bianco: d’occhi castagnicci: e di capelli neri.” CAPRIOLO

-“Illustre Milanese, valoroso soldato e nemico personale del Duca Lodovico il Moro.” A.D. ROSSI

-“Etait un gentilhomme représentant une des familles les plus puissantes de la Lombardie. Ennemi mortel de Sforze et des San-Severino, tout puissants près de Ludovic, il avait offert, suivant l’usage en Italie, ses services à la maison d’Aragon..S’il abandonna un des premiers, et un peu trop tot, la maison d’Aragon, il resta fidèle a la France jusqu’à sa mort. Il la servit sous trois rois dans les plus hautes positions militaires et il mourut de chagrin d’avoir reçu de François Ier, dit Brantome, un léger reproche qu’il n’avait pas mérité.” DE LA PILORGERIE

-“Sommo condottiero dei suoi tempi, l’unico fra gli italiani dell’epoca che è riuscito a battere gli svizzeri.” PELLEGRINI

-“Un capitano d’Italia ribellato/ vien con il re di Franza tanto experto/…/ Jacomo da triulzi per suo merto/ che di tante virtù si mostrò adorno.” Da “La rotta di Parma” in GUERRE IN OTTAVA RIMA

-“Iacobo de traulzi con gran gloria/ fu racevuto nel paterno nido/ e per triumpho de tanta victoria/ se sentea per Milano un alto crido/ che de franza facea chiara memoria/ ciascun volea mostrarse amico fido/ ch’el populo che sol la roba honora/ el vincitor con riverentia adora.” Da “La guerra del Turco e la presa di Modone” in GUERRE IN OTTAVA RIMA

-Alla battaglia di Melegnano “…el vecchio franco/ Trovossi a piedi in mezo il martial ballo/ Perché le vene il suo destrier a’ manco/ Non per suo mancamento error o fallo/ Ferito in un ginochio al lato manco./ Si adoprò tanto lì a piede con il brando/ Ch’Hetor di Troia nel famoso Orlando/ Non fe mai tanto a piede con il brando.” Da “Guerre orrende d’Italia” in GUERRE IN OTTAVA RIMA

-“E’ stato un militare e politico italiano, spregiudicato nelle azioni e coinvolto nelle complesse vicende che ebbero come posta il dominio della signoria di Milano tra la dine del XV secolo e l’inizio del XVI.” WIKIPEDIA

-“Personalità sfaccettata di soldato alieno da brutalità, lettore di classici e committente di artisti – Bramantino, Leonardo da Vinci, Bernardino de’ Conti -, soprannominato Magno da Massimiliano I, ma detestato, accusato da una storiografia spicciola d’avere mutato casacca portando “stranieri” in Italia; a giudizio più equilibrato ne risalta il destino nell’epitaffio “numquam quievit”, e di audaci mediazioni tra invasori, fazioni locali e popoli assoggettati a gravose imposizioni.” VIGANO’

-“La leadership di Giangiacomo Trivulzio in seno alla fazione guelfa aveva cominciato a delinearsi già all’indomani della caduta del Simonetta, ma emerse poi con indubbio rilievo tra la fine degli anni Ottanta ed i primi anni Novecento, soprattutto dopo la sua definitiva rottura col Moro.” SOMAINI

-” Nella piazza dei Santi Nazzaro e Celso a Milano gli è  eretta una statua in bronzo con la seguente epigrafe “Io. Iac. Magn. Trivultius, march. Vigev. Gub. exiguum hoc/ Grandioris statuae simulacrum platea S. Nazarii erigenda,/ Civit. Mediol. Gnati animi tanti principi./ Expugnata Alexandria, deleto exercitu, Ludovicum Sf. Mediol./ Duc. expellit, reversum apud Novariam sternit, capit.” Sopra la porta maggiore della medesima chiesa compare la seguente scritta “Io. Iacobus Trivultius, marchio Vigevani, marescalcus Franciae,/ inter militares labores religionis observantissimus, sacellum hoc/ Assumptae Virginis erexit et dotavit MDXVIII die V augusti.” Sulla sua tomba, infine, è inscritta la seguente epigrafe “Io. Iacobus/ Magnus Trivultius/ Antonii filius/ Qui numquam/ Quievit.Quiescit./ Pace.”


-C. De’ Rosmini. Dell’istoria intorno alle militari imprese e alla vita di Gian Jacopo Trivulzio detto il Magno.

Image source: wikipedia , Biografia di Gian Giacomo Trivulzio: sogni, ambizioni e “tradimenti” del milanese Maresciallo di Francia ; Gian Giacomo Trivulzio innanzi a Luigi XII
Featured image sourcewikipedia
Topics: Gian Giacomo Trivulzio biography, Italian Wars history, Renaissance art patronage, military tactics of Trivulzio, Trivulzio’s impact in Milan

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Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani è l'autore del sito Condottieri di ventura.