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Biographical notes on War Captains and Mercenary Leaders operating in Italy between 1330 and 1550

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Georg von Frundsberg: The Mastermind Behind Landsknecht Tactics

Of gigantic stature. According to some historians, the greatest German condottiere of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. A fervent partisan of Martin Luther. He carries with him a golden noose with which he boasts of wanting to hang the pope, as well as others made of silk intended for the cardinals. With his hatred towards the pontiff, he drives his **Landsknechts** to march on Rome. However, he is not present at the sack of the city due to an apoplectic attack that strikes him on the way to Ferrara.

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Last Updated on 2024/02/14

Frundsberg’s Role in the Italian Wars

Georg von Frundsberg was a notable German military leader and Landsknecht commander in the Holy Roman Empire’s service. Born into a family of Tyrolean knights in 1473, he earned distinction during the Italian Wars under Emperors Maximilian I and Charles V. Renowned for advancing infantry tactics and establishing the Landsknechts, his contributions to military strategy and his leadership in various battles across Europe, especially in Italy, solidified his legacy. Frundsberg’s influence extended beyond his military achievements; he supported the reformation ideas of Martin Luther and was deeply involved in the political and military dynamics of his time. His death in 1528 marked the end of an era, but his title as “Father of the Landsknechte” and the legends of his valor and tactical genius lived on, influencing both military practice and cultural memory.

George von Frundsberg (Giorgio Frundsberg) of Mindelheim in Bavaria. Lord of Mindelheim. From an aristocratic family of Upper Swabia.

Born: 1473
Death: 1528 (august)

Year, monthState, Comp. venturaOpponentConductActivity AreaActions taken and other salient facts
…………Germany, LombardyThe younger son of a noble Swabian family from Mindelheim, he first fought in the War of Regensburg in 1492, in Switzerland, in the Engadin during the War of the Succession of Landshut in 1499, and in the Duchy of Milan in the service of Ludovico Sforza. From a mercenary paid double wages, he quickly became a captain.
1509FranceVeniceVenetoOn the payroll of the King of France, Louis XII. He is noted in Verona.
1511
Mar.FranceVenice, Church2500 infantrymenVenetoIn the defense of Verona.
MayVeneto, EmiliaHe leaves Verona with 1,200 rather disorderly infantry (2,500 Landsknechts according to French sources) and joins forces with Gian Giacomo Trivulzio at Casalecchio di Reno. The following morning, he takes part in the battle of the same name, where Francesco Maria della Rovere is routed.
1513
…………SpainVeniceVenetoIn Verona, under the command of Albert of Brandenburg. In Vicenza, the men of his companies are reviewed by Bishop Matteo Lang.
Sept.VenetoWith Giacomo di Landau, he takes part in the sacking and burning of Marghera.
Oct.VenetoAt the head of a square of 3,000 Landsknechts, he contributes effectively to the victory at Creazzo over Bartolomeo d’Alviano. The credit for the unexpected victory (which in German chronicles is remembered as a kind of miracle) belongs to Frundsberg. The commander organizes his lines so that the arquebusiers retreat while continuing to fire their weapons, thereby weakening the Venetian front. When the Landsknechts decide to counterattack, the squares of the Serene Republic cannot withstand their charge, and the selected troops from the rear ranks flee, throwing away their pikes.
1514
Jan. – Feb.EmpireVeniceFriuliHe joins Christopher Frangipane in the siege of Osoppo, which is defended by Jerome Savorgnano.
JulyVenetoHe leaves Verona to move with 2,000 infantry to guard Vicenza. He is noted in Cittadella. He moves with the Viceroy of Naples, Raymond of Cardona, between Grisignano di Zocco, Montegalda, Castagnaro, Caselle, Este, Monselice. Every day, his Landsknechts conduct raids, take prisoners, and skirmish with the Venetians.
Aug.VenetoIn Cittadella and Monselice. Falling ill, he is carried to Montagnana where there are another 3,000 soldiers stricken by the plague. From here, George von Frundsberg is transported on a stretcher to Verona.
Dec.VenetoOn guard in Verona with Marcantonio Colonna and Francesco da Castellalto.
1516
JulyVenetoLeaving Germany to return to the defense of Verona with Mark Sittich and George of Liechtenstein, he tries to contain the mutiny of the Landsknechts of the garrison who demand the payment of back wages. The soldiers leave the city through the Porta San Giorgio, plunder the surrounding fields, and return to Verona. The following morning, they go to Piazza Bra and begin to plunder the nearby shops. In the end, after a clash between the proponents of disorder and those of order, the tumult is quelled with many infantrymen wounded. The disturbances continue, and at the subsequent muster, as requested, 2 Rhenish florins are delivered to each Landsknecht. 1,500 Spanish infantrymen who have adapted to this behavior are also satisfied with the delivery of one Rhenish florin each. Finally, the Swiss infantrymen of the garrison also move in the same direction. On the military front, Frundsberg supports Colonna in the defense of the city, particularly during a Venetian attack on Porta Vescovo.
Aug.VenetoHe supports Colonna in a sortie towards Parona where the Venetians under Teodoro Trivulzio are located. There is a large skirmish at the end of which the Imperial forces are forced to return to Verona after suffering significant losses. Near the Porta San Giorgio, he clashes with the stradiots of Mercurio Bua. Some light horses are captured on one side, and on the other, about ten German infantrymen. At the end of the month, with Mark Sittich (2,000 infantry) and Francisco Maldonado (1,000 Spanish infantry), he marches along the banks of the Adige and launches a night attack at Tombetta on the camp of Malatesta Baglioni (200 men-at-arms, 1,500 infantry, and 300 light cavalry). Baglioni is wounded during the fight, even running the risk of being captured. Among infantry and cavalry, 500 Venetians are killed. The booty includes ninety fine mounts, eight oxen, two mules loaded with soaps, silk capes, and various other equally valuable goods: all of which are divided in Verona among the participants in the action.
Oct.VenetoHe must quell a further mutiny of the German infantry in Verona caused by the delay in their pay. He imposes a levy on the inhabitants and satisfies the soldiers by delivering them an advance (4 Rhenish florins immediately and the promise of the rest within fifteen days).
Nov.Veneto, TrentinoHe goes to meet 600 Swiss infantry coming from Trent. He clashes at Peri, in Val Lagarina, with 800 Venetian light cavalry. Some losses on both sides. Having returned to Verona, he exits the city through Porta Vescovo with 1,000 Landsknechts and the light cavalry of Zucchero (50) and Constantine Boccali (60). He heads to Colognola ai Colli where he puts to flight 600 light cavalry of Troilo Pignatelli and Bua. The locality is sacked. At the end of the month, he is noted in Trent. He proposes to the soldiers of the garrison a payment in money and in clothing items. His offer is refused.
Dec.VenetoAt the end of the month, peace is signed between the Emperor and the King of France. He immediately gets in touch with Lautrec.
1517
Jan.VenetoHe joins the Bishop of Trent, Bernardo Cles, in the peace negotiations that take place in Dossobuono. Also present are Francesco da Castellalto and Mark Sittich for the Imperial side. Upon his return to Verona, he must face a further revolt of the Landsknechts who want the balance of their pay instead of the small advances offered to them.
…………GermanyHe returns to Germany: only after several months does he manage to secure full payment of wages to his soldiers, though partially in cash. The remaining sum is paid in bales of silk and cloth supplied, among various merchants, also by the trading house of Augsburg’s Hochstetter.
1519GermanyHe fights in Württemberg. Under his command are 18,000 Landsknechts. He besieges the city of Hohentwiel (the action is depicted in a work by Albrecht Dürer).
1521
JulyEmpireFranceGermanyAt the end of the month, he arrives at Wissenburg with Caspar Reger of Ulm and Jorglin von Krumbach to recruit new soldiers to confront the French.
…………FranceHe avoids participating in the Battle of Valenciennes.
1522
Jan.MilanFranceHe is hired by the Sforzas with 6,000 Landsknechts.
Feb.LombardyHe descends through the Valtellina, touches Edolo and Como. From there, he arrives in Milan where he strengthens the garrison of Prospero Colonna.
Apr.LombardyHe participates in the Battle of Bicocca where his Landsknechts clash with the Swiss square of Alberto Pietra. He plays a significant role during the fight, being present alongside his soldiers, pike in hand. Before the battle, he arranges the army, calls his captains to report; subsequently, all the officers, together with George von Frundsberg, give a speech to their men to inform and encourage them to fight; after which they position themselves in the front lines. The commander places himself in the central array; he repels with arquebus fire the Swiss, who suffer the loss of 1,000 men even before coming into contact with his infantry. In the battle, 3,000 Swiss and 22 captains die; George von Frundsberg is wounded in the thigh by a pike thrust. When the French flee, Ferdinand of Avalos orders him to pursue the opponents: his men refuse to obey and demand the payment of three wages. Frundsberg moves to Cremona.
MayLiguriaDuring the conquest of Genoa. The city is horribly sacked.
…………He increases the number of arquebusiers in the Landsknecht formations at the expense of the pikemen.
1523GermanyGeorg von Frundsberg recommends the men of his companies to Marco Sittich, who is recruiting infantry on behalf of the imperials. Frundsberg, on the other hand, remains inactive, irritated by the Habsburgs’ lack of commitment to respecting the pay schedules of their armies.
1524EmpireFranceAlto Adige, LombardyIn Merano for the review of his companies, Georg Von Frundsberg leads 6000 Landsknechts to Milan.
…………GermanyFrom Lombardy, he has moved with 10,000 men to the borderlands between Germany and France to fight once again against the French.
Dec.GermanyHe meets the Constable of Bourbon in Nuremberg.
1525
Jan.EmpireAustria, Trentino, LombardyHe descends from Tyrol through the Adige Valley with Marco Sittich and Niccolò Salm at the head of 2000 Landsknechts, 5000 German cavalry, and 300 Burgundian cavalry. He aims for Lodi to join forces with the troops of the Marquis of Pescara. He arrives in Pavia in poor physical condition.
Feb.LombardyHe participates in the Battle of Pavia, which the imperialists demand before the deadline for paying the Landsknechts’ wages. He commands 13,000 infantrymen. Before the combat, he gathers his men in a circle and delivers a speech to arouse their national pride. It seems that on this occasion, he wore the habit of the Franciscan order, the Franciscan tunic, over his armor, thus showing everyone that he considers himself a humble man-at-arms. It is decided to attack the French camp at night and to breach the walls of Mirabello Park; a sortie by the defenders of Pavia would then complete the tactical picture for the imperialists. At dawn, the surprise assault turns into a decisive battle. Ferdinand d’Avalos and his nephew Alfonso lead the troops, Viceroy Carlo di Lannoy and the Constable of Bourbon command the men-at-arms, Georg Von Frundsberg and Marco Sittich lead the rearguard with 28 Landsknecht banners: their task is to face the Landsknechts of the Black Bands who serve the French. As soon as the imperialists penetrate the park, part of the opposing forces advances towards them in formation. The French artillery, led by Galiot de Genouillac, creates deep gaps in the ranks of the Landsknechts and Spanish infantry; the men-at-arms, led by King Francis I himself, repel the enemy cavalry. The Marquis of Pescara leads the Spanish arquebusiers in a charge that drives back the French cavalry. Georg Von Frundsberg is invited by d’Avalos and the Constable of Bourbon to join forces with the Spanish troops. He crosses the underbrush towards the point where the King of France is located. A massacre of German infantrymen from the Black Bands ensues, despite being outnumbered, they continue to fight fiercely, preferring to die on the spot they occupy. Their commanders, the Duke of Suffolk Richard de la Poole and Longmanno di Augusta, are killed, with a soldier cutting off the hand loaded with rings from one of them. During the fighting, Georg Von Frundsberg finds himself in a dire situation from which he is saved by the intervention of Baltes Kopp. He will repay the favor to his soldier in the same year when he will arrange for him to obtain safe conduct to defend himself against a murder charge in the city court of the latter.
Mar.Lombardy, EmiliaWith Niccolò Salm and Marco Sittich, he demands payment for the overdue wages; he rejects the offer of an advance equal to one and a half wages in cloth instead of cash. The Landsknechts block Carlo di Lannoy in Pavia and obtain as collateral the castle and artillery until the total payment of nine wages. Immediately after, Georg Von Frundsberg leaves Piacenza with 8000 Landsknechts and obtains a bounty of 1500 ducats from the city, promising to camp in the nearby territory and not in its vicinity.
Apr.EmiliaThree thousand Landsknechts are dismissed, preferring to return to their lands.
MayEmpireRebellious peasantsTrentinoHe recruits infantrymen for the Swabian League to counter the peasants of Allgäu, utilizing the services of Ludwig Schnod from Nuremberg for this purpose. He is soon recalled to Trentino to face the uprising of the peasants against the nobles and the upper clergy in the Non Valley and Sole Valley. He quells the disturbances in Trento with Francesco da Castellalto, seizes the castle, and transports all the artillery pieces into the fortress.
JuneAustriaIn Innsbruck.
JulyAlto  Adige, AustriaHe advances from Bolzano and finds himself at the pass of Bressanone with 12,000 men from the Swabian League. With the Duke of Bavaria, he moves to the aid of Cardinal Curzense, Bishop of Salzburg. He clashes with the adversaries, and at first, he is believed to be dead.
Aug.AustriaForced by the rebellious peasants to retreat and wait for reinforcements from the Duke of Bavaria, he is attacked again. With a surprise maneuver, he ambushes the rebels near Vipiteno, preventing them from seizing some artillery pieces (resulting in the death of 100 men).
Sept.AustriaMichail Gaissmayr is defeated, and Frundsberg is granted compensation of 14,000 reyes. He enters Salzburg and connects with Niccolò Salm. He moves with this captain to Schladnig to counter the rebels of the area with 8000 Landsknechts.
Oct. – Nov.Alto Adige, TrentinoHe reaches Bolzano and Trento.
Dec.GermanyHe travels to Augsburg and Stuttgart, in the duchy of Wurttemberg, to gather troops.
1526
JuneAustriaWith 4000 men, he marches to Pinzgau, laying waste to the valley. He once again defeats Gaissmayr at Rötzstadt.
JulyGermanyAfter quelling the peasant revolt, he moves to aid the imperialists against the French. He pledges his castles and possessions, including that of Mildenheim, raising 38,000 florins. This sum allows him to hire a considerable number of soldiers (Swabians, Franconians, Bavarians, Tyroleans), each of whom is given a shield. Leading the troops are his son Melchiorre, his brother-in-law Ludovico di Lodrone, Count Cristoforo di Eberstein, Alessandro di Cleven, Niccolò di Fleckenstein, Alberto di Freiberg, Corrado di Bemelberg, known as “the little Hess,” Nicola Seidenstuker, Giovanni di Biberach, and Sebastiano Schartlin. The majority of the soldiers are of Lutheran faith. Georg Von Frundsberg himself is inclined towards the new doctrine; it is even said that he carries with him a rope woven in gold destined for the Pope’s neck. He shuttles between Innsbruck and Trento, where he is joined by another 4500 infantrymen who have left Cremona with Corradino di Clurnes.
Oct.Alto AdigeThe troops are gathered between Bolzano and Merano.
Nov.Trentino, Lombardy, EmiliaIn Trento, 36 infantry banners are assembled. Frundsberg pays his men with money and cloth, prepares rafts and boats as if to take the road to Verona and force the respective locks. He then seemingly heads towards Valsugana and Bassano del Grappa; however, he directs his troops towards Riva del Garda, Lodrone, Condino, and Stoz instead. He camps at Anfo and stays there for four days, waiting for the entire army to arrive. He contacts Giovanni Antonio di Val Trompia, who blocks him with 1000 infantrymen, and obtains permission from the authorities of Brescia to pass through Chiese, paying for provisions provided to his men. Through Sabbio Chiese and Vobarno, he emerges onto the plain east of Brescia; the Venetians now attempt to block his path to the Crown. After overcoming a hint of resistance at Garzane, the first clash occurs near Gavardo, where the light horses of Giovanni Naldi and other troops sent against him by Camillo Orsini are defeated. The German infantrymen continue their march, ford some swift streams, and repel the Venetians with the fire of their arquebuses. Frundsberg divides the troops into three parts; through the streets of Lonato and Desenzano del Garda, he reaches Castiglione delle Stiviere. The Venetians of della Rovere and the Black Bands of Giovanni dei Medici then decide to move against the Landsknechts and not give them any respite. Deprived of cavalry and artillery, Georg Von Frundsberg tries to reach Milan, where the Constable of Bourbon awaits him; he resorts to a broad maneuver that leads him to cross the Po and move into the Mantuan territory. The Gonzagas allow him to enter the enclosure; he arrives at Borgoforte. In this location, Venetian-Papal vanguards oppose his crossing of the river. He sets off along its bank to cross it downstream at Ostiglia; he is pursued by the Medici with 400 light horses and as many arquebusiers. Frundsberg is caught up with and attacked at Governolo. Meanwhile, some falconets arrive from Ferrara to his aid; one of their shots shatters the leg of Medici, who will die in Mantua five days later. Despite the loss of 300 Landsknechts against 50 Italians, Frundsberg can cross the Po undisturbed, set up camp between Parma and Piacenza, and establish contact with the Constable of Bourbon.
Dec.EmiliaHe travels to Ferrara with Antonio di Lodrone, reaching the city via the river. His men stop at Revere, where they receive payment with money provided by Alfonso d’Este. He then moves to the Parmesan territory and awaits further money from the Constable of Bourbon.
1527
Jan.Emilia, LombardyThey link up with the Landsknechts at Fiorenzuola d’Arda, along with Roberto da San Severino and other imperial militias. The army totals 30,000 men, including infantry and cavalry, and constitutes the largest army fielded by Charles V. They assemble in Pavia.
Feb.Emilia, LombardyHe besieges Piacenza in vain, defended by Guido Rangoni and Babone Naldi. He crosses the Nure River; each soldier is given a shield, and 10,000 pairs of shoes are distributed. Alfonso d’Avalos is held hostage until all outstanding claims are fully satisfied. He then travels to Milan; upon returning from this visit, he heads to Brescello, where he embarks for Ferrara, still in search of money.
Mar.EmiliaIn Borgo San Donnino (Fidenza), his men destroy religious images and the relics of saints in the churches. Georg Von Frundsberg proceeds towards Bologna with the Constable of Bourbon, closely followed by the papal forces and their allies, who move from Parma towards Modena, waiting for the imperial army to dissolve due to inertia. Indeed, rebellions continually erupt within the ranks of this army. Mid-month, a new mutiny escalates to such proportions that Frundsberg himself can barely maintain control. Stricken by an apoplectic attack, he is loaded onto a boat to be transported to Ferrara. From this moment on, he is no longer able to oversee operations. The Este doctors, in an effort to heal him, employ a rather unusual method, having him take a bath in oil in which a fox has been boiled.
Dec.MarcheHe is reported to be in Fermo.
1528
…………EmiliaHe returns to Ferrara and, with the imperial ambassador Andrea dal Borgo, convinces Duke Alfonso d’Este to remain loyal to the alliance with the imperial forces.
MayEmilia, VenetoBelieving himself restored to health, he leaves Ferrara with an escort of 50 horsemen and 200 arquebusiers, heading towards Ostiglia. He then travels to Mantua, where he is warmly welcomed by Federico Gonzaga. He proceeds to Peschiera del Garda to meet the Landsknechts of the Duke of Brunswick, who have come to Italy at the request of Antonio di Leyva. He pressures these troops to move to Tuscany after fighting in Lombardy, to assist the Pope in reconquering Florence.
JulyGermanyThe plan does not materialize because in the same month, the Landsknechts, defeated, return to Germany. Frundsberg himself leaves Italy; he is carried on a litter to Lecco and returns to Germany with many horses and infantrymen.
Aug.GermanyHe dies in his castle of Mindelheim eight days after his arrival. He is buried in the same castle with his son Gaspare. His son Melchiorre, who also died in the same year, is buried in Rome in the church of Santa Maria dell’Anima. Frundsberg corresponded with Martin Luther.

Sources

-“Il più grande fra tutti i capitani tedeschi vissuti fino al tempo del Wallenstein.” GREGOROVIUS

-“Uomo di statura colossale, di forza prodigiosa. Di gran coraggio, luterano passionato; il quale venne a quell’impresa coll’idea di far onta al papa, ed a tal fine portava seco un cordone d’oro in forma di capestro, e lo mostrava dicendo “a ogni signore ogni onore”.” VERRI

-“Era costui oltre di tempo, ma forzoso di corpo e ardito d’animo a maraviglia, e con tal confidenza di sé stesso e con tanta bravura se ne veniva, ch’egli un capestro d’or a ciascun passo di seno cavandosi, si vantava barbaramente di voler con ello appiccare per la gola il papa, e con altri, che di seta chermisi si portava sempre all’arcione, i cardinali.” VARCHI

-“Capitano vecchio ed avvezzo nelle guerre d’Italia.” SANTORO

-“Gentil capitaine.” R. DE LA MARCK

-“Gentiluomo Tedesco, che dopo d’avere con molt’onore servito nelle guerre d’Italia, erasi acquistato tanto favore e tanto credito presso i suoi compatrioti, ch’essi venivano in folla ad arruolarsi sotto di lui.” ROBERTSON

-“Qual furor già ti pose, e qual pazzia/ il Capitolio a minacciar di fuoco./ Et perché tanto mal ti parea poco,/ Il gran pastor di morte infame e ria?/ Ecco come in un subito tu pria/ Che potesti arrivar al sacro loco,/ Provasti del morire il fiero gioco,/ Così ogni empio pensier punito sia./ Ma benché al nome tuo questo disegno/ Macchia d’infamia, e vituperio apporti,/ Come d’huom valoroso al tutto indegno:/ Tu però a gran ragione poi Giorgio porti/ Per ardir, per consiglio, e per ingegno,/ Nel numero de Duci illustri e forti.” G.A. VOLPE. Da un sonetto raccolto dal GIOVIO

-“Huomo di gran corpo, di valore e di grandissime forze..Capitano di molta authorità in Baviera.” ULLOA

-“Impietati ad insaniam deditus.” RAYNALDO

-Con Francesco da Castellalto “Uomini..espertissimi nelle cose di stato e di guerra, corpi di ferro, animo d’acciaio, e fino dalla giovinezza sfidatori d’ogni maggiore pericolo.” SARDAGNA

-“Duce imperterrito.” CAPELLA

-“Dinamico e pugnace militare di carriera..(La sua biblioteca) comprendeva romanzi cavallereschi, descrizioni di tornei e cronache di viaggi, ma anche trattati teologici, medici e i testi classici più popolari e diffusi.” HALE

-“Gentilhomme de reputation..Etoit de taille de geant et de force extraordinaire, il aimait la gloria de sa nation; et se plaignoit qu’elle eut été obscurcie depuis un siecle par les Suisses, en ce qui regardoit les armes. Il en attribuoit la faute à la negligence des aventuriers Alemans, qui s’enroloient indifferement sous toutes sortes de personnes; et se proposoit d’y remedier, en les accoutumant à choisir del chefs de maison et d’experience. De plus il avoit été des premiers à se déclarer pour Luther: et sa haire contre le pape étoit si grande, qu’il ne demandait qu’à passer dans l’Italie pour attendre..l’occasion de nuire sa saintetè.” VARILLAS

-“Famoso Capitano mercenario.” ROTH

-“Fiero soldato, d’animo duro, di coscienza dubbia, di niuna religione, bramoso di prede.” BALAN

-“Famigerato capitano di lanzichenecchi.” ZORZI

-Con Michele Gaissmayr “I più capaci e temuti condottieri di lanzichenecchi nei due campi contrapposti.” A. STELLA

-“Grande generale tedesco di fede imperiale.” DI PIERRO

-“E’ stato definito “il padre dei lanzichenecchi”; non tanto per averli creati, quanto per l’impegno nel farne la prima fanteria d’Europa, togliendo agli svizzeri la preminenza militare da loro goduta a partire dalle guerre contro Carlo il Temerario, duca di Borgogna. Le battaglie della Bicocca (1522) e, soprattutto, di Pavia avrebbero consacrato definitivamente la superiorità delle armi tedesche.” N. CAPPONI

-“An ardent partisan of Luther; who had done much to secure the victory of Pavia, Frundsberg was prince of Mindelheim.. The bulk of his army was composed of pious landsknechts, at this time the most powerful infantry in Europe, stronger than either the French hommes d’armes or the Swiss. They formed a kind of organized military republic, the duties and obligations on either side being carefully drawn up and guaranteed. They were generally armed with a long lance which they carried over their shoulders and were clad in a striped dress of different colours, but their arms and uniform were very much varied. They consisted of Swabians, Franconians, Bavarian and Tyrolese, all..young, strong and active.” BROWNING

-“Era considerato uno dei più esperti comandanti di campo della sua epoca.” KONSTAM

-“Il Frundsberg raffigurato dalla tradizione per l’arcangelo della Germania luterana contro Roma papale ci si presenta alla luce de’ documenti come un buon cattolico che fa baciare il piede di S. S.tà; e in ammenda del sacco di Roma, a cui egli dopo tutto non aveva partecipato,  offre volonteroso il suo aiuto a Clemente VII per restituirlo signore di Firenze.” LUZIO

Featured image: Wikipedia

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Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani è l'autore del sito Condottieri di ventura.