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Biographical notes on War Captains and Mercenary Leaders operating in Italy between 1330 and 1550

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Gabriele Da Martinengo: Innovator and Defender in Renaissance Warfare

Italian CondottieriGabriele Da Martinengo: Innovator and Defender in Renaissance Warfare

An energetic, innovative, and brave man. A captain with astute valor in the art of war, an expert in artillery, an excellent cannon founder, and most notably, one of the most famous military engineers of his era. He conducted his activities across Italy, Greece, Spain, Libya, Algeria, Morocco, and Austria. He particularly distinguished himself in the defense of the island of Rhodes, besieged by the Turks of Sultan **Suleiman the Magnificent**. Here, he was able to provide substantial support to the defenders, the knights of the Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, both by constructing devices capable of detecting tunnels being dug under the walls (and destroying them with countermines) and by limiting the effects of explosives introduced into them.

Indice delle Signorie dei Condottieri: ABCDEFGIJLMNOPQRSTUVZ

From artillery to countermines: Pioneering Military Tactics Against the Ottoman Empire

Gabriele da Martinengo (Gabriele Tadini da Martinengo) from Bergamo. Brother of Girolamo da Martinengo, cousin of Fabrizio da Martinengo. From Martinengo.

Born: 1476
Death: 1543, June

Year, monthState, Comp. venturaOpponentConductActivity AreaActions taken and other salient facts
………LombardyFrom a young age, he displayed a penchant for the exact sciences, particularly for war machines. His father, Clemente, a physician to the Colleoni family, sent him to Bergamo to observe the fortification work on the city bulwarks, known as the “Venetian walls” that surround the Upper Town. He began his studies in mathematics and military science; soon, he was employed by the local authorities as a technical assistant in the restructuring of the walls.
1509
MayVeniceFrance, Empire30 infantrymenVenetoIn Venice, he was given a command and the role of engineer assigned to the fortifications. He was present at the Battle of Agnadello.
Sept.VenetoIn the defense of Padua, he was tasked with overseeing the bastions of the walls on the outer ring.
1510VenetoHe assisted Lucio Malvezzi and Renzo di Ceri in their efforts to reclaim Verona.
1511
Aug.VenetoHe fought as a “lancia spezzata” (a kind of freelance soldier) in the company of Renzo di Ceri at the defense of Treviso. He was accused by the Council of Ten of neglecting his work, murmuring against the Signoria, and wanting to desert to the enemy camp. Towards the end of the year, he was sent to Brescia where he met the young mathematician Niccolò Fontana, known as Niccolò Tartaglia due to his stutter.
1512
Feb.LombardyAt the defense of Brescia, he was wounded and captured when the French forces under Gaston of Foix recaptured the city. He was only released in March 1513 following an alliance between the Venetians and the French against the Spanish and the Sforzas.
1513
………VeniceSpain, MilanVeneto, LombardyHe returned to Venice and was tasked with overseeing the defenses of the strongholds recently recaptured by the Venetians. He fought for the Serenissima between Brescia and Verona until he was sent to Crema with the responsibility to inspect and strengthen the city’s defenses.
JuneLombardyAt the defense of Crema, under the command of Renzo di Ceri.
July – Sept.LombardyHe participated in the assault in Bergamo during which the Spanish governor Ripanadeira was captured. In September, alongside his brother Girolamo, he was defeated by the Sforzas near Bergamo.
1514
MayLombardyHe remained on guard at Crema. He clashed with the men of Giovanni Gonzaga in an attempt to recover a convoy of supplies; he was wounded in the encounter.
Aug.LombardyHe was present at the Battle of Ombriano.
Sept.LombardyHe assisted Bartolomeo da Villachiara in Bergamo when the Venetians seized part of the ransom imposed by the Spanish on the city.
Nov.LombardyHe supported Renzo di Ceri in the defense of Bergamo.
1515
MayOn the recommendation of Renzo di Ceri, the Council of the Wise, albeit with some hesitation, granted him a provision of 20 ducats per pay (for eight pays per year), with the obligation to serve the Serenissima with 2 horses.
………He served under the command of the Captain General of the Serenissima, Bartolomeo d’Alviano.
Oct.LombardyAt the siege of Brescia.
1516
Mar.LombardyHe fell ill in Mantua.
Sept. – Oct.200 infantrymenVenetoHe moved to the siege of Verona. Under the command of Malatesta Baglioni, he led an assault on the Porta Vescovo bastion: his actions were praised by the overseers. He had command of the artillery and directed firing operations conducted by 151 bombardiers under his command.
1517LombardyHe returned to Brescia. His residence was located near the Church of Santa Chiara, between the Carmine and the Church of San Cristoforo.
1518
Apr. – JuneLombardy, Veneto, EmiliaHe assisted Camillo da Martinengo in the kidnapping of Luisa Caprioli, daughter of Giulio Averoldi, in Brescia. Summoned to Venice, he was arrested in a hall of the College of the Pregadi. In June, he was stripped of his command and banned for ten years from all lands east of the Mincio. He took refuge in Ferrara.
1519
Dec.VenetoWith the withdrawal of the complaint by the Averoldis, he returned to Venice upon summons from the College of the Pregadi. He was acquitted by the Council of Ten.
1520
MayCroatia, GreeceThe Council of the Wise sent him to Crete as the captain of the infantry and governor of Candia, increasing his provision from 25 to 50 ducats per pay (still for eight pays a year). He traveled by sea to Capodistria with the general provider Sebastiano Giustinian; from there, he embarked at Veglia on a galley headed to Candia. Alongside Gabriele da Martinengo, there were also 20 constables, 20 squad leaders of musketeers, and 30 provisioned (also musketeers) on board. He was appointed the general superintendent of artillery on the island. He oversaw the construction of the Martinengo bastion in Heraklion, situated between the Bethlehem bastion and the bastion of Jesus.
Dec.GreeceHe issued new directives on the fortifications of Mount San Demetrio that differed from those previously set forth by Giano Fregoso.
1521
JuneGreeceHe commanded 3,500 men, including 500 musketeers, and sought to dismiss some of them. The Duke of Candia, Antonio Morosini, and the provider Giustinian opposed his decision. He requested additional muskets and halberds from the Venetians because he aimed to increase his forces to 20,000 men through regulations. During this period, he supervised the fortifications of Canea (Iraklion), Rethymno, Souda, Sinalunga, and Carombrino.
1522
JulyRodiOttoman EmpireGreeceHe was persuaded by Friar Antonio Bosio to switch to the defense of Rhodes, which was threatened by the Turks. The Grand Master of the Hospitaller Order, Fra Philippe Villiers de L’Isle-Adam, requested his services from the Serenissima in vain; the Venetians refused to grant him leave so as not to antagonize the Ottomans. Despite this, Gabriele da Martinengo left Candia aboard a brigantine with two friends (Giorgio di Conversalo and Benedetto di Scaramosa) and secretly arrived in Rhodes. Two galleys tried unsuccessfully to intercept him: the Duke of Candia ordered his house sacked and all his possessions confiscated. He was banished.
Aug.General captainGreeceHe joined the Order of the Knights of Rhodes at the Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria; he was given command of part of the troops with the task of overseeing the fortifications of the island. An annual provision of 1200 ducats was recognized for him, and his two captains were granted an annual salary of 100 ducats. He was also promised a bailiwick of his choice in Italy as soon as one became available: Pope Adrian VI granted him an income on ecclesiastical benefices in the West amounting to 3000 ducats a year. Martinengo focused his attention especially on four aspects: countering every offensive action, in the use of fire tactics, in retreats, and in the deployment of mines and countermines. Thus, there were numerous assaults. In particular, he organized vigorous counter-maneuvers against the digging of trenches parallel to the city defenses protected by palisades. As the Ottoman tunnels advanced, Gabriele da Martinengo constructed ingenious listening devices: membranes of stretched skins on frames to which bells so sensitive that they tinkled at the slightest underground vibrations were attached. He also placed mines to intercept the tunnels and kill the diggers in the dark; he used gunpowder to force the miners out of their trenches; he set elaborate traps to strike opponents with lethal crossfire. In case a tunnel was not promptly identified, he had spiral ventilation holes dug into the foundations of the walls to reduce the impact of the opponents’ explosive charges. In this way, he discovered that the Turks were digging a mine near the Church of San Giovanni della Fontana towards the Provenza moat: the enemy sappers died burned or drowned.
Sept.GreeceHe effectively defended the bastion of Saint Athanasius, located behind the bastion of England where a large explosion had also allowed the attackers to create a nine-meter opening in the city walls; similarly, other Turkish attacks on the bastion of Spain proved fruitless.
Oct.GreeceIn a single day, Gabriele da Martinengo repelled five assaults during which the Knights of Rhodes detonated 50 mines. The distress of the Knights of the Hospitaller Order increased as they vainly sought reinforcements from Christian countries. A further heavy assault on the bastion of Spain was repelled, costing the lives of 3000 Turks killed by the fire from artillery and arquebuses. The opponents took possession of the barbican of the Spanish Post and began to collapse the walls with sappers. Martinengo had a stockade and other shelters built behind the walls and positioned many pieces of artillery there to disrupt the work; he was wounded in the right eye by a shot from a musket that passed through a loophole while he was inspecting the defensive works. The ball exited behind his ear. He would only recover after a month and a half; the eye was lost.
Dec.GreeceThe Turks captured the lines of the first and second Mandra; Gabriele da Martinengo then constructed a third; the barbican of the bastion of Spain also fell into enemy hands. The Grand Master asked him and Prégeant de Bidoux for their opinion on the possibility of continuing to defend Rhodes effectively: his response was negative. This initiated negotiations for surrender. The truce was broken, and the bombardment of the city resumed; within a few days, the defenders were forced to surrender on terms. Among the attackers, there were between 80,000 to 90,000 deaths, of which 25,000 were due to infectious diseases and water shortages; among the knights alone, 420 men were killed out of an initial 600. Martinengo embarked on a brigantine at night, rightly fearing that the commitments made by the Turks would not be honored by them.
1523
Jan.ApuliaIn early January, the Grand Master left Rhodes aboard the large carrack “Santa Maria,” which flew black mourning drapes on its sails and displayed the image of the Virgin of Sorrows with the inscription “Afflictis tu spes unica” (You are the only hope for the afflicted). Along with this ship, the galleys “San Giovanni” and “Santa Caterina,” the barge “Perla,” and a small galley, “Siciliana,” also set sail from the island. Accompanying the Grand Master were the Metropolitan of Rhodes, 180 surviving knights, and about 4000 islanders aboard 50 smaller vessels. Martinengo stopped at Zakynthos; he then reached Gallipoli from where he contacted the Viceroy of Naples.
………Campania, LazioFrom Naples, he traveled to Rome. Pope Adrian VI confirmed him in the commendation of Santo Stefano in Conversano.
Oct. – Dec.Lazio, SpainThe pontiff dies. During the conclave, he leaves Rome and travels to Madrid with the Prior of Castile, Fra Diego di Toledo, and Fra Antonio Bosio to request from the Emperor the use of the islands of Malta and Gozo as logistical bases for the future actions of the Hospitaller Order. In December, he meets with Charles V in Pamplona. Negotiations begin, which will conclude the following year.
1524
MayItaly, SpainIn Rome, he obtained permission from the Grand Master of the Order to serve with the Imperial forces. He then returned to Spain.
July – Sept.EmpireFranceArtillery captainSpain, France, PortugalIn Burgos with the Emperor, he was entrusted with the command of the Spanish and Aragonese artillery, with a salary of 2000 ducats per year. In August, he participated in the invasion of Provence and the siege of Marseille. The bombardment by his artillery units proved ineffective against the defenses prepared by Renzo di Ceri. Various attacks were repelled. At the end of September, with the failure of the operations, Gabriele da Martinengo returned to Spain to study new weapon models and to oversee the casting of cannons to replace those lost. He managed to produce a gunpowder with better yield. Around the same time, he was granted a priory in Portugal. He reached its location in August, but had to relinquish the benefit because, in the meantime, a brother of the Portuguese king had appropriated it.
Oct.LombardyHe participated in the defense of Pavia. Antonio di Leyva assigned him to construct new shelters, trenches, cavaliers, and other defensive military works. Bonnivet decided to attack the city from the Ticino side: Gabriele da Martinengo employed all the citizens to build new defenses towards the river; with the help of heavy rain that swelled the river’s waters, he discouraged any inclination to attack.
1525
Feb.LombardyHe was present at the Battle of Pavia.
SpringMorocco, Kingdom of NaplesHe was tasked with preparing a plan for strengthening the defenses of Melilla in Morocco; he is now appointed as the Prior of Barletta and has the responsibility of overseeing the defense of the coastlines of the Kingdom of Naples.
………FranceHe was engaged in improving the defensive structures of Perpignan.
Dec.SpainHe oversaw the fortification works of San Sebastian and Fuenterrabia, employing the efforts of Italian engineers Antonio Bagherotto, Antonio Bosis, and Benedetto da Ravenna.
1526
Feb.ApuliaHe went to Barletta to take possession of the priory to which he had been appointed.
Sept.LiguriaHe was recalled from Apulia to move to the defense of Genoa: the city was attacked by sea by the French under Pietro Navarro, the papal forces of Andrea Doria, and the Venetian fleet led by Alvise d’Armer.
Oct.LiguriaAlongside Greco Giustiniani (with 6000 infantry), he attacked the enemy camp at Portofino from five points. They were repelled by 700 infantry and 300 crossbowmen and provisioned troops commanded by Filippino Doria. Forced to retreat after seven hours of fighting, they suffered 80 men killed and another 200 wounded.
Nov.LiguriaHis troops faced increasing difficulties due both to a lack of supplies and the outbreak of plague in Genoa.
1527
Feb.LiguriaHe constructed several bastions in Portofino with the aim of preventing the enemy fleet from mooring.
Aug.LiguriaCesare Fregoso approaches Genoa; Gabriele da Martinengo leaves the city to confront him with 2500 infantry and 2 artillery pieces. At the Porta di San Lazzaro, he captures some Venetian sentries, recovers the monastery of San Benigno, situated high above Genoa, and captures Borragino along with the entire garrison. This is followed by a counteroffensive by the opponents, which turns out favorable for them: the commander takes refuge first in the Lanterna, then boards a fishing boat and flees to sea. Pursued, he is captured by Fregoso who imposes a ransom of 10000 scudi.
Sept.LombardyHe is imprisoned in the castle of Cremona.
1528
MayLombardyHe is transferred to the castle of Brescia. The ransom is reduced by Cesare Fregoso to 4000 ducats; it also includes the simultaneous release of his brother, Annibale, who had been captured by the imperial forces.
JulyLombardyDue to his illness, the castellan Giovan Francesco Mocenigo allows him to leave the fortress to be hosted in Cesare Fregoso’s house: the Venetian authorities oppose the measure and have him returned to a tower in the castle where he is monitored by numerous guards.
Nov.LombardyHe is handed over to Giano Fregoso. Gabriele da Martinengo is released according to the agreements, despite opposition from the Council of Ten, in exchange for the release of Annibale Fregoso, who is in turn released by Antonio di Leyva.
1529
Feb.SpainHe is reported to Toledo.
………ApuliaHe faces the militias of Renzo di Ceri in Apulia. At the end of the conflict, he is involved by Fernando Alarcon in the work to strengthen the castles of Barletta, Manfredonia, and Trani.
………LombardyHe is tasked with overseeing the artillery of the Duchy of Milan by Antonio di Leyva.
Aug.LiguriaIn Genoa, alongside Emperor Charles V.
………SpainIn San Sebastiano to assess the state of the works.
1530
Feb.EmiliaIn Bologna for the coronation ceremony of the emperor by Pope Clement VII.
1531
Dec.LombardyIn Casalmaggiore, with the Marquis of Vasto, Alfonso d’Avalos, engaged in preparing the troops for the upcoming campaign against the Turks.
1532
JuneEmpireOttoman EmpireAustriaDefending Vienna against the Turks of Sultan Suleiman.
JulyGermanyHe moves between Regensburg and Nuremberg; he retrieves several pieces of artillery to be transported to Vienna.
Oct.FriuliHe passes through Chiusaforte and meets with his friend Battistino Corso, who serves in the Venetian forces.
Nov. – Dec.Friuli, VenetoHe arrives in Spilimbergo with 4 sakers, 6 cannons, and 100 carts of gunpowder and various ammunition; with Gabriele da Martinengo there are also 850 horses and 450 infantry still on the payroll of the imperial forces; 2000 Italian infantrymen dismissed in Villach also follow him. In his march, he touches Conegliano, fords the Piave, heads towards Treviso, Bassano del Grappa, Vicenza, and Verona. He moves to Mantua and in December his presence is noted in Mirandola. At the same time, the emperor intercedes with the Venetians on his behalf; he is forgiven for his desertion from Candia.
1533
Mar. – Apr.Lombardy, LiguriaIn Milan. He leads the artillery to Genoa. He obtains a discharge from service from Charles V. He is granted a pension on the revenues from some lands in Otranto and Bari.
JuneLombardyHe retires to Martinengo, content to manage his assets and take care of his beloved nephew Camillo, the son of his brother Girolamo who fell in battle at Sampierdarena.
1535
…………EmpireOttoman EmpireLibya and TunisiaIn Barcelona, for a war council. He supports Andrea Doria in the sieges of Tripoli, La Goletta, and Bona.
…………LazioAt the end of the campaign, he stays for a few months in Rome.
…………He returns to the Venetian territory, renounces active military service, and obtains from the imperial authorities an annual pension of 666 ducats, equal to one-third of the provision he had enjoyed until that point.
1537Veneto, GreeceIn Venice; the Senate wants to utilize his experience. Martinengo is tasked with reviewing the defensive works of the Greek archipelago, as well as the fortifications of Crema and Cremona.
1543
…………BelgiumHe is consulted by the imperial authorities regarding the fortifications of Antwerp.
JuneVenetoHe dies in early June in Venice from a stroke. He is buried in the city in the church of Saints John and Paul; the ark containing his remains would later be demolished. A friend of the mathematician Niccolò Tartaglia (Niccolò Tartaglia) who dedicates the “Translation of the Euclidean Megarensian” to him and makes him the interlocutor of the dialogue “Quesiti et invention diverse”. His studies attract the interest of Galileo Galilei (Galileo Galilei). A portrait by Titian (Titian) is located in a private collection in New York; the Serenissima also dedicates a medal to him, a work by Giovanni da Cavino. Martinengo has dedicated its main street to him.

Sources

-“Huomo grande con barba lunga, et homo di gran fama.” SANUDO

-“Dotato di buone letture, e di bellissimo ingegno, e nelle cose della guerra esercitatissimo; e dilettandosi delle scienze matematiche, e particolarmente delle cose appartenenti alle fortificationi, alla difesa, e all’espugnatione delle città, era riuscito ingegniero rarissimo, sì ch’in quei tempi, pochi, o nessun pari haveva.. Huomo di grandissima fatica, e travaglio; molto vigilante, e della persona sua oltra modo valoroso, e ardito.” BOSIO

-“Era riverito per nome di coraggioso valore.” SANSOVINO

-“Celeberrimo ingegnere bergamasco, a cui vuolsi attribuire l’invenzione delle parallele da lui messe in opera la prima volta all’assedio di Rodi.” BOSI

-“La cui perizia nella costruzione di militari macchine spiccò per tutto l’assedio (di Rodi), e specialmente in isventare le mine, le quali dopo grandissimo travaglio e per le sorgenti acque, o per l’interposizione di resistente fondo selcioso, loro riusciva di avvicinar alle mura.” A. MOROSINI

-“Personaggio dotato di perspicace talento nell’arte della guerra, assai perito nelle scienze matematiche, versatissimo particolarmente nella fortificazione, difesa ed espugnazione delle piazze, ingegnere rarissimo, sicché pochi, o nessuno pari al suddetto ritrovavasi in tutta l’Europa.. Così grande era la stima, che in tutta l’Europa erasi acquistata il Tadino, che quasi tutti gli scrittori del decimo sesto secolo, e molt’altri ancora ne’ secoli posteriori ci lasciarono onorata ricordanza nelle loro istorie della dottrina, coraggio ed esperienza, unite alla nobiltà de’ natali di un tanto celebre eroe.” GALLIZIOLI

-“La vita intera trascorse nell’ingrandire i nobilissimi studi e nell’adoprare la mano e l’ingegno contro i nemici del nome Cristiano…Egli vivente gli fu coniata una assai cara medaglia di bronzo, col suo ritratto barbuto in abito di cavaliere Gerosolomitano, e scritto attorno Gabriel. Tadin. Berg. Eq. Hier. Caes. Tormen. Praef. Gen.: e nel rovescio quattro cannoni in batteria col motto Ubi Ratio, Ibi Fortuna Profugata, e la data del MCCCCCXXXVIII.” PROMIS

-“Inter vicinos heroas, et inclyta in armis/ Tadinus Gabriel nomina clarus erat./ Ipse auro quoties spoliisque Orientis onustus/ Traxit captivas in sua castra manus./ Praedones pelagi quoties, et robore, et astu/ Caepit, et affixit classica rostra thalis?/ Ille Rodum reliquos inter defendit ab hoste/ Custodis donec prodita fraude fuit./ Viribus hanc totis, et aperto Marte Tyrannus/ Tentaverat frustra subdere Turca sibi.” Da un sonetto di A. Muzio, ripreso dal GALLIZIOLI

-“Homo valente et de ingenio.” ULLOA

-“Cabriel di martinengo, il qual era/ in candia lo baron provisionato/ intese a Rhodi era giunta la fera./ Di andargli drento sì fa inanimato/ per provar s’el sapeva l’arte vera/ del martial ballo contra el renegato/ & forse che Dio lo inspirò nel core/ per salvar Rhodi da tanto dolore/…/ Fo facto capitaneo zenerale/ con lo stendardo in man del Crocifisso/ nel pecto una gran croce imperiale./ Sì gran maestro al baron gli ebbe misso/ al popul della terra triomphale/ quel per avanti in paura era misso/ stava in gaudio in festa e in canto sì riso/ che spera el suo nemico aver conquiso./…/Fe gran cose con la spada in mano.” PEROSINO DELLA ROTONDA

-Alla battaglia di Ombriano “Gabriel di martinengo s’adoprava/ virilmente da prodo cavalliero,/ e la sua propria vita non curava/ per acquistar honor su quel sentiero/ e questo, e quello morto al pian mandava/ tal ch’apena potea col suo destriero/ passar i corpi ch’eran su la terra/ in quella dispietata, e horribil guerra.” DEGLI AGOSTINI

-“Ma ‘l Martinengo, ingegner che s’adava,/ Come pratico in guerra e sapiente,/ Presto fé fare una contracava/ Che tutta la montagna dirupava.” Dal “Lamento di Rodi” di B. degli Alessandri riportato dal MEDIN-FRATI

-“Uomo ruvido, energico innovativo e coraggioso, Tadini valeva un migliaio di uomini. Si mise all’opera (alla difesa di Rodi) rafforzando le difese, calcolando distanze e campi di tiro e mettendo a punto le killing zones.” CROWLEY

-A Rodi. “Venne creato cavaliere di san Giovanni “honoris causa” al suo arrivo sull’isola, e divenne il geniale ideatore di soluzioni che contribuirono a fare del porto-città di Rodi il complesso meglio fortificato dell’intero mar Mediterraneo.” PELLEGRINI

-“Uno dei più famosi ingegneri militari dell’epoca.. Durante l’assedio (di Rodi) diede un importante contributo ai difensori, costruendo ingegnosi strumenti in grado di individuare le gallerie in costruzione dei turchi e preparando contro-mine che fecero strage nell’esercito assediante. Inoltre, facendo costruire enormi sfiatatoi, sotto le fortificazioni, annullò gli effetti di molte esplosioni innestate dai nemici. Di lui abbiamo un ritratto eseguito da Tiziano nel 1538, che lo presenta nell’abito di cavaliere di San Giovanni, privo dell’occhio destro, perso per un proiettile di archibugio passato attraverso una feritoia mentre.. ispezionava le fortificazioni di Rodi.” GIANI

-“Il più importante ingegnere militare dell’epoca.” NORWICH

-“Gabriele Tadino.. merita di essere ricordato non solo per i suoi grandi meriti di studioso delle scienze militari, di coraggioso combattente, di eccellente architetto, di ardito e abile scopritore di mine e di ottimo fonditore di cannoni, ma anche e soprattutto perché fu un uomo d’armi che, malgrado i tempi e malgrado la professione, seppe ispirare la sua vita a un coerente e severo impegno morale.” TADINI

-“Per diversi anni il giovane (Gabriele) studiò le tecniche dell’architettura militare inserendovi però nozioni e calcoli ingegneristici: questo connubio tra gusto estetico e capacità tecnica furono caratteristiche sue personali, molto rare in quei tempi e che avrebbero poi avuto un ruolo di primo ordine in tutte le sue vicende di uomo d’armi… Non fu solamente un coraggioso uomo d’armi, ma anche un personaggio impulsivo, talvolta temerario ed incline alla colera.” R. MONELLA, in combattentibergamaschi.it

SPECIFIC BIOGRAPHIES

-G. Gallizioli. Memorie per servire alla storia della vita di Gabriele Tadino priore di Barletta.

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Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani è l'autore del sito Condottieri di ventura.