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Biographical notes on War Captains and Mercenary Leaders operating in Italy between 1330 and 1550

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From Priest to Warlord: The Remarkable Journey of Conte da Carrara

Italian CondottieriFrom Priest to Warlord: The Remarkable Journey of Conte da Carrara

The natural son of Francesco da Carrara, Lord of Padua, he was initially destined for an ecclesiastical career, becoming the archpriest of the city's cathedral. Knighted, he then dedicated himself to the military profession. Gifted with uncommon insight and strength of character, he soon emerged as one of the best condottieri of his time. Leaving his native city due to conflicts with the new lord of Padua, his half-brother Francesco Novello, he shifted his focus to central and southern Italy. He served both the Papal States and Ladislaus of Naples (Ladislao d'Angiò). Upon the death of this king, he managed to seize Ascoli Piceno, where he established a lordship primarily based on military strength.

Indice delle Signorie dei Condottieri: ABCDEFGIJLMNOPQRSTUVZ

The Knight of Padua: A Tale of Power, Strategy, and Betrayal in Medieval Italy

Count of Carrara (Conte da Carrara) (Gentile da Carrara, Giacomo da Carrara), Count of Campagna. Lord of Ascoli Piceno, Porto d’Ascoli, Offida, Smerillo, Civitanova Marche, Appignano del Tronto, Arquata del Tronto, Rotella, Montegranaro, and Manoppello. He was the natural son of Francesco da Carrara, Lord of Padua, the father of Ardizzone da Carrara, and the son-in-law of Francesco Gonzaga. His brother Stefano was the Bishop of Teramo.

Born: 1350 ca.
Death: 1421, November

Year, monthState, Comp. venturaOpponentConductActivity AreaActions taken and other salient facts
1381VenetoBecause of his status as a natural son, he was directed toward an ecclesiastical career. His mentor was the jurist Baldo Bonafari. He lived with his mentor not far from the Carrara palace in a building on San Niccolò street. He studied canon law. He was part of the chapter of the Abbey of Santo Stefano di Carrara and held a prebend in Pernumia. He was also appointed as a canon of the cathedral of Padua.
1384VenetoIn the spring, his father Francesco the Elder asked Pope Urban VI to appoint his son as abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Rosazzo. Upon his refusal, the Lord of Padua claimed for himself the role of arbitrator in the conflict between the Patriarch of Aquileia, Filippo d’Alençon, and the Friulian feudal lords. He offered to pacify Friuli on the condition that the patriarch accept Conte da Carrara as his vicar and subsequently make him patriarch for a fee of 35,000 florins. The pope rejected the proposal.
1385
………VenetoHe replaced Don Angelo da Castiglione as archpriest of the cathedral of Padua. Soon after, he was knighted by his half-brother Francesco Novello, renounced the archpriesthood, and dedicated himself to the military profession.
SpringComp. venturaMarcheHe joined forces with Azzo da Castello, Ceccolo Broglia, Brandolino Brandolini, and Boldrino da Panicale, and together they ravaged the Marche region.
Sept.ChurchCamerinoMarcheHe fought against the da Varano family. He besieged the castle of Pinna (Penna San Giovanni) and nearby defeated Gentile da Varano, Boldrino da Panicale, and Biordo dei Michelotti.
………PaduaVeronaVenetoHe was recalled to Padua by his father, Francesco.
1386
Mar.VenetoAntonio della Scala diverted the waters of the Bacchiglione at Longare to prevent the river from flowing through Padua. Carrara attacked the tower guarding the laborers and forced the defenders to surrender. He destroyed the dam and left a strong garrison in the tower.
JuneVenetoHe participated in the Battle of Brentelle, near Padua, in which Cortesia da Serego was defeated. With his lance, he unhorsed Ottaviano della Branca, who was carrying the Scaliger banner, and with the help of Francesco and Pataro Buzzaccarini and Tripolino da Rustega, he captured the standard.
1387
Feb.VenetoHe supported Giovanni degli Ubaldini at Cerea. However, he was forced to return to the territory of Padua due to a lack of provisions.
Mar.VenetoHe was at Castelbaldo, where he attended a council of war with Giovanni degli Ubaldini and John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto). Before the battle, he was knighted by them along with his brother Giacomo, Bernardo Scolari, and Pataro and Francesco Buzzaccarini. He participated in the Battle of Castelbaldo in the third division (1,400 cavalry) with his brother Francesco Novello, Ugolotto Biancardo, Antonio Balestrazzo, Ceccolo Broglia, Brandolino Brandolini, Biordo dei Michelotti, Giacomo da Carrara, and Bernardo Scolari. In this combat as well, he distinguished himself for his personal valor: he protected his brother from an assault by Giovanni Ordelaffi. He also helped Biancardo plug a breach that had opened in the Carrara lines.
MayVenetoHe left Padua under the command of Ugolotto Biancardo, crossed the Bacchiglione at Longare, and attacked the towers of Novaglia. He redirected the river to its old bed and drained the moats that defended the bastions. The defenders surrendered, and the fortifications were set on fire. Struck in the leg by a horse’s kick, he was forced to leave the field and return to Padua for treatment.
Aug.PaduaUdineGeneral captainVenetoWhen his brother Francesco Novello fell ill, Conte da Carrara was appointed captain general. He left Padua, reached Treviso, passed through Conegliano, and moved with some bombards to conquer Sacile.
Sept.Friuli, VenetoHe forded the Piave and entered Friuli. He had a bridge of boats constructed on the Livenza, using boats sent from Portobuffolè and Brugnera. On the same day, along with Cermisone da Parma, he set up artillery against Sacile and began bombarding the city. He occupied the suburbs, repositioned the artillery, and continued the bombardment (launching stones weighing up to 500 pounds). The inhabitants surrendered under terms. Conte da Carrara occupied the city in the name of his father. In the following days, he took control of the tower of Caneva, the castle of Aviano, and the bastion of Mogiale with the village on the Livenza. He camped beneath Maniago and attacked it in vain for two days (losing 120 men); his attempt on Spilimbergo met the same fate. He then advanced near Udine until heavy rains flooded the terrain, forcing him to retreat to Sacile.
Oct.FriuliTogether with Giacomo Pio and Anderlino Trotti, he was defeated at Godia/Savorgnano by Corrado di Bussina. In the clash, 1,500 men were killed on both sides, many drowning as they tried to escape across the Tagliamento. The Carrara forces lost their artillery and baggage, and 1,200 men were captured. The condottiero broke camp at Spilimbergo and retreated to Sacile, a retreat made difficult by the condition of the roads and the marshy terrain, resulting in further losses of provisions and logistical materials. He was recalled to Padua after leaving strong garrisons in the Friulian fortresses. He re-entered the city through the Porta di Ognissanti, a sign interpreted as ominous, troubling the condottiero, especially since Galeazzo Pepoli, riding at the head of the troops, accidentally dropped the flag. Conte da Carrara went to Arlesega and moved towards Vicenza to receive the city from the Visconti allies, according to previous agreements. He sent Baldo da Piombino to Biancardo, who responded that he had received Vicenza from the inhabitants in the name of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Count of Virtù.
1388
………VenetoHe took up the defense of Bassano del Grappa alongside Francesco and Pataro Buzzaccarini.
JunePaduaMilanVenetoAt the outbreak of the war with the Visconti, Conte da Carrara, along with Romeo Pepoli and 1,000 cavalry, rode towards Curtarolo to block the advance of Jacopo dal Verme.
JulyVenetoHe defeated the Visconti forces at Limena. However, it was all in vain, as continuous breaches opened in the Carrara ranks, and the people of Padua clamored for an end to the war.
Aug.VenetoHe bravely attacked Jacopo dal Verme at Limena, but victory was denied when Albertino da Peraga, the Carrara field marshal, called for a retreat. With the loss of that castle, he entered the defense of Padua. He brought Peraga into the city in chains, accusing him of treason. Under torture, Peraga confessed everything, particularly that he was supposed to leave the Ognissanti and Santa Sofia gates open for Biancardo. Albertino da Peraga was beheaded in the Palazzo della Ragione on a platform facing Piazza delle Biade, and other conspirators were hanged.
Sept.VenetoHe moved to the Brenta near Stra at the Rin crossing; he left Buzzaccarini at Arcuano and advanced to Castelcarro to block the opponents’ passage into the Piove di Sacco territory.
Nov.Veneto, LombardyFrancesco Novello da Carrara was forced to surrender. Ugolotto Biancardo, against the agreements, entered the castle of Padua, which was entrusted to Carrara, who accepted the accomplished fact. He renounced all ecclesiastical offices, left Stra, went to Padua with 50 cavalry, exited through Porta Saracinesca, and accompanied his brother to Monselice, Este, Montagnana, Verona, and Milan, where Francesco Novello was to meet with Visconti.
1389
Jan.Lombardy, PiedmontHe headed to Abbiategrasso to have a meeting with the Count of Virtù, who was not honoring his commitments. Blocked in this attempt, he then set out for Asti with his brother.
Mar.PiedmontHe helped his brother, Francesco Novello, escape from Piedmont.
Spr.TuscanyHe reached Florence with all his family members, 80,000 ducats in cash, and another 60,000 in the form of jewels.
MayTuscanyWith his brothers Francesco Novello and Rodolfo (and 20 cavalry), he went to Cortona, where he met with Carlo Casali and Carlo Visconti who invited him to join John Hawkwood’s (Acuto) company. He accepted, while his brothers declined the offer. He then entered the service of the Florentines. Francesco Novello headed towards Germany to seek support for the reconquest of Padua.
………BolognaRimini160 lancesRomagnaHe confronted Carlo Malatesta, the Lord of Rimini, in Romagna.
Apr.RomagnaAlong with Ugolino Ghislieri and Corrado Prospero (with 300 lances), he was defeated while marching near Rimini. Captured by Pandolfo Malatesta, he was soon released after a ransom was paid. By mid-month, he was reported to have returned to the service of Bologna with Prospero, recruiting men-at-arms on behalf of the commune, which offered a salary of 18 florins per lance.
MayFlorenceMilan500 cavalry, 500 infantrymenEmiliaHe was sent with John Hawkwood (Acuto), Giovanni da Barbiano, Malatesta Malatesta, and Niccolò Roberti to the Bologna area to oppose the Visconti militias.
JuneMarshal, 150 lancesEmiliaBy mid-month, he was conferred the title of marshal. He was given command of 100 lances, plus an additional 50 granted by John Hawkwood (Acuto). Meanwhile, his brother succeeded in returning to Padua.
JulyPaduaMilan, FerraraGeneral captainEmilia, Romagna, VenetoHe requested leave from the Florentines and the Bolognese and, traveling via Ravenna and Chioggia, reached Padua with 50 men-at-arms and 100 crossbowmen. He was received with full honors by his brother and took lodging in the palace of Ugolino Scrovegni at the Arena. He immediately began besieging the Visconti forces that had barricaded themselves in the city’s castle. He attended the signing of the alliance treaty with the Florentines. Near San Francesco Piccolo, in the southwestern suburbs of the city where the army was encamped, he was appointed captain general of the troops. The baton of command was handed to him by Duke Robert of Bavaria.
Aug.VenetoHe repelled an attempt by Ugolotto Biancardo to supply the defenders of the castle with provisions and ammunition. He confronted him at Limena in a fierce battle that lasted several hours, capturing 300 Visconti men. He also seized 40 wagons loaded with flour, 20 with salted meat, 30 with wine, 10 with ammunition, and 200 heads of livestock. He returned to besieging the castle, whose defenders were forced to surrender. He was the first to enter the castle with Francesco Buzzaccarini to raise the banner of the red cart on a white field upon the walls.
Sept.VenetoHe moved with 200 lances and 600 infantry to reclaim Camposampiero, reaching Santa Croce di Cittadella. While he was at the vanguard with 200 infantry and 30 cavalry, a Visconti captain with 300 infantry and 30 cavalry emerged from the bastion to confront Conte da Carrara. He felled some opponents and was on the verge of defeat when his brother Francesco Novello arrived with the rest of the troops. The Visconti forces were routed; Carrara entered the bastion, which was sacked, and the opposing captain and garrison were killed. He then moved to Bassano del Grappa, storming the locality through a treaty that left a gate open for him. Castelfranco Veneto and Belluno also fell into his hands. He reached Campo San Martino and from there ravaged the Polesine for several days, targeting the Este territories. Crops were set on fire, livestock was plundered, and prisoners were taken. He occupied Badia Polesine and secured Lendinara, then laid siege to Rovigo. The Venetians intervened, leading to a truce between the Carrara and Este factions.
Oct.VenetoHe returned to Padua.
Nov.VenetoTogether with Cansignorio della Scala, he invaded the Vicenza area, raising the Scaliger banners. They brought devastation everywhere with looting, plundering, and imprisonments.
1391
Jan.General captainVenetoHe supported his brother and John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto) in the initiative on Verona aimed at restoring Scaliger rule in the city. However, the city did not rise as hoped due to the effective defense by Biancardo. When Francesco Novello da Carrara returned to Padua, he was left in command of the Carrara forces. The operations did not gain momentum, even though many Veronese exiles joined the anti-Visconti league’s troops.
Feb.VenetoHe returned to Padua with John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto), both due to the harshness of the winter and because Astorre Manfredi, who had left the camp, was supposed to assassinate the English condottiero during a council of war but had been corrupted by the adversaries.
MayVeneto, LombardyUpon hearing of the imminent arrival in Alessandria of Count John of Armagnac, hired by the Florentines, he followed John Hawkwood (Acuto) in his attempt to join forces with the allies.
JuneLombardyHe clashed at Porta Cologno in Bergamo with Jacopo dal Verme and Facino Cane. Among the Visconti forces, 150 cavalry were captured, 80 men-at-arms and many crossbowmen were killed; 200 Milanese conscripts also drowned while crossing a river. Carrara pursued the enemies and was wounded in the arm by an arrow.
JulyLombardyHe is present at the Battle of Paterno.
Sept.VenetoWith the return of John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto) to Florence, he regains command of the Carrara troops.
Oct.VenetoConte da Carrara crosses the Ponte di Torre, moves to Este, and attempts to free Castelbaldo from the siege imposed by Ugolotto Biancardo and Antonio Porro. The opponents retreat at his appearance; he intercepts them and forces them into flight. He seizes 280 wagons of provisions and munitions, 22 boats with 12 large bombards, and other materials. With this victory, he demolishes the two bastions built by the Visconti, resupplies the fortress, encamps at Bevilacqua, and devastates the Vicentino. That year, his brother assigns him the palace in the contrada dell’Arena (the one with the famous Giotto chapel), which had been confiscated from the Scrovegni for allying with the Visconti.
1392
Jan. – Apr.EmiliaIn January, he goes to Ferrara for the first time for a tournament organized by Alberto d’Este. During the same days, the marriage between Francesco III da Carrara and Alda Gonzaga, daughter of Francesco, is arranged. He is noted to be in Ferrara again for the marriage of Ludovico Alidosi with Verde Pio.
MayComp. venturaRomagna, TuscanyHe joins the Company of St. George, the fourth and final one to bear this name. Accompanied by his brother, he leaves Padua with 1000 cavalry and 300 infantry. He gathers 1000 lances at Barbiano with Giovanni da Barbiano and heads towards Tuscany with this captain.
JuneTuscany, Marche, UmbriaThey are also joined by Ceccolo Broglia and Brandolino Brandolini. He stops in the territory of Fano between the Monastery of San Paterniano and Cuccurano; then he heads towards Umbria.
JulyComp. venturaPerugia, Siena, Città di CastelloUmbria, TuscanyWith the Company of St. George, he harasses the territories of Perugia and Città di Castello; he collects some ransoms from the communes of Tuscany, from Florence (30,000 florins), from Siena (5,000 florins; actually 11,112 florins including gifts to the various captains of the company), from Pisa, and from Lucca.
Aug. – Sept.Church, RiminiAnconaMarcheHe is hired by Pandolfo Malatesta and the rector of the Marca, Andrea Tomacelli, to plunder the territories of lordships and communes opposed to the policies of the Papal States.
Oct. – Nov.ChurchFermo, Camerino, AnconaMarche, UmbriaWith Brandolino Brandolini, Ceccolo Broglia, and Giovanni da Barbiano (2500 cavalry), he supports the Marquis of the Marca in opposing the league of Marchigian cities (Fermo, Ancona, Camerino). The conflict involves the territories of Sant’Elpidio a Mare, Montegranaro, and San Giusto. The operations take place near Fonte Fallera (Falerone). He is appointed by Pope Boniface IX as Count of the Campagna. In November, he crosses the territory of Città di Castello with his company.
1393
Mar.MarcheAt the conclusion of a general peace agreement in the Marca, he, along with the other condottieri involved in the recent conflict, commits to abstain from any acts of violence in the region for one year.
Apr.Comp. venturaBologna, Florence, FerraraUmbriaHe joins forces with Giovanni da Barbiano, Konrad Von Weitingen (Corrado Lando), Biordo dei Michelotti, and Azzo da Castello, forming a company of 2500 cavalry and many infantry. Similar contracts are held by the other condottieri with the Florentines and the Estensi.
MayChurchMarcheHe returns to the service of the rector of the Marca, Andrea Tomacelli.
Sept.ChurchCamerino1000 cavalry, 300 infantrymenMarcheHe fights against the da Varano. He enters Penna San Giovanni with the exiles and besieges the castle. Attacked by the opponents between Penna di Sant’Angelo and Monte San Martino, he is captured along with Andrea Tomacelli.
Nov.BolognaMarche, EmiliaA one-year truce is agreed upon between the contenders. According to this agreement, the communes of Ancona, Fermo, Ascoli Piceno, Gentile and Rodolfo da Varano, Guido Chiavelli (Fabriano), Sciarra Simonetti (Jesi), Guido di Matelica (Matelica), Benuttino Cima (Cingoli) commit to ensuring that da Carrara frees the communes of Recanati, Macerata, Osimo, Montefano, Filottrano, Staffolo, Offagna, Castelfidardo, Montelupone, San Giusto, and Montegranaro from any obligations of provisioning him in exchange for their commitment to recognize a ransom of 1200 ducats to Biordo dei Michelotti. The condottiero is released under pressure from the Venetians and the Florentines. He transfers to the pay of the Bolognese.
1394
Oct.ChurchCamerinoMarcheWith the exiles from Macerata, Montegiorgio, and Montecassiano, he attempts to forcefully enter Macerata. He is repelled by Gentile and Rodolfo da Varano. Freed from the threat, the Maceratesi, the following year, organize a thanksgiving celebration to commemorate the victory against the “nefarious people” of da Carrara. On the anniversary of the liberation, in mid-October each year, the city clergy are to hold processions and sing litanies throughout the city.
Dec.Marche, VenetoHe leaves Fermo. He is given 200 ducats by the Maceratesi as payment for his contract with Tomacelli. He returns to Padua.
1395
Jan.Ferrarad’Este200 lances, 300 infantrymenVeneto, EmiliaHe leaves Padua, passes through Chioggia, and reaches Ferrara: he enters the service of Niccolò d’Este. He confronts the militias of Azzo d’Este and Giovanni da Barbiano.
Apr.EmiliaWith Corrado di Altinberg, he defeats and captures Azzo d’Este at Portomaggiore.
JuneFermoPerugia300 lancesMarcheIn the service of Fermo, Ancona, and Recanati, he opposes Michelotti in the Marche. He leaves Montegranaro with Luca di Canale; soon, he reaches an agreement with the opposing captain and abandons Luca di Canale near San Giusto. His united companies extort a ransom of 3000 ducats and begin to raid the entire territory.
JulyBolognaFlorenceRomagnaHe returns to the service of the Bolognese, who send him with Mostarda da Forlì (2000 cavalry and some infantry) to the Forlì area to assist the Ordelaffi, who are threatened by the Florentines. With Pino Ordelaffi, he seizes the bastion of Sadurano, located opposite Castrocaro Terme.
Aug.ApuliaHe goes to Puglia with Marino di Santa Vittoria and Marino di Montereale.
Sept.Fermo, Comp. venturaPerugia, Ascoli PicenoMarcheInformed of Michelotti’s return to the Piceno, he leaves the Kingdom of Naples and marches with 3000 cavalry to Ascoli Piceno. He camps by the Leta stream between Montegranaro, Sant’Elpidio a Mare, and Monte Urano, while the Perugian captain positions his quarters at San Giusto. A truce follows between the contenders; together with Michelotti, he demands a ransom of 3000 ducats from the inhabitants of Ascoli Piceno and they stay in the San Flaminiano territory.
Oct.PerugiaChurchUmbriaBiordo dei Michelotti promises Conte da Carrara an annual provision of 500 florins in exchange for his assistance against the papal forces.
Dec.Comp. venturaMarcheHe plans to sell Montegranaro to the Fermani after purchasing grains and other provisions for his men. However, Biordo dei Michelotti precedes him in this endeavor.
1396
Jan. – Mar.FermoExilesMarcheAt the invitation of the city priors and the lord of the city, Antonio Aceti, he is tasked with suppressing a revolt sparked by a rumor that he intends to sack the Campolege district in the western area of the city. He positions himself in front of Fermo at the gates of San Giuliano and San Marco; he aids the lord of the city, Antonio Aceti, who is forced by the revolting citizens to take refuge in the Rocca del Girifalco. In March, the exiles enter the city and incite an uprising. da Carrara leaves the fortress and descends upon the city, killing numerous inhabitants and taking many prisoners. The San Bartolomeo district, where a Jewish community is located, is particularly devastated. He is supported in this operation by Marino di Santa Vittoria and Pippo di Montereale.
May – JulyComp. venturaFlorence, FolignoTuscanyHe raids Tuscany with his company, targeting the papal territories. In July, with Malatesta Malatesta and Ceccolino dei Michelotti, he devastates the Foligno area to strike Ugolino Trinci, a loyal ally of the Holy See. This action incites revolts in many centers, including Nocera Umbra, Sellano, and Castelbuono.
Aug.ChurchComp. venturaMarcheIn the Marche, along with Mostarda da Forlì, he is tasked by the papal legate with retrieving the spoils taken by Alessio di Montereale in the territory of Monterubbiano (100 oxen and 26 prisoners).
1397
Mar. – JuneFlorenceMarcheBetween March and April, he is enlisted by the Florentines along with Corrado Prospero. In early June, he passes through Fermo and heads along the coast towards the Mantovano to confront the militias of Gian Galeazzo Visconti.
JulyPaduaMilan1000 cavalry, 800 infantrymenLombardyHe is stationed at the defense of Ostiglia with 1200 cavalry and many infantry, immediately strengthening its defensive lines. After the defeat of the league’s army at Borgoforte, he moves to defend Mantua and persuades Francesco Gonzaga not to abandon the city.
Aug.LombardyHe conducts numerous actions along the Mincio to try to relieve Governolo, besieged by dal Verme; he supports Carlo Malatesta in the eponymous battle, commanding the second squadron with 1000 cavalry and 800 infantry. In the clash, he charges Ottobono Terzi, who leads the first squadron, and overpowers him; he captures Frignano da Sesso and Ludovico Barbavara, until he is forced to retreat by the intervention of the second Milanese wave led by Francesco Visconti. Supported by Corrado Lando, he withstands the ducal assault: he wounds Visconti and knocks him to the ground; the same fate befalls Manfredo Barbavara, Antonio Porro, and Ugolino Cavalcabò. Filippo da Pisa confronts him, and he dismounts him as well. He makes a decisive contribution to the battle by mobilizing the infantry, which overcomes the resistance of the garrison assigned to protect the encampments: with his lance, he overpowers Taddeo dal Verme, who defends the banners, and captures Galeazzo Porro, who carries the main standard of the Duke of Milan.
………LombardyHe and Giovanni da Barbiano are ordered to move to the Bresciano to support the actions of Giacomo Avogadro, who has rebelled against the Visconti; the two captains refuse. Because of this, they are both suspected of treason by the Florentines. He and Barbiano settle for attacking the castles of Melara and Ostiglia, despite the protests of the Florentines, who desire a decisive action.
Nov.UmbriaIn mid-month, he crosses the territory of Città di Castello. During his passage, he demands money in exchange for the promise not to damage the countryside.
Dec.LombardyHe is positioned along the Po; the league’s troops are repeatedly defeated, necessitating that he and Barbiano be rescued by a fleet of 7 galleys and 70 armed boats.
1398
Mar.VeniceMilan400 lancesVenetoHe is hired by the Venetians for a month and a half, with the term extendable to six months. He is granted a monthly provision of 10,000 lire. The contract is signed in Venice at the Ducal Palace, in the Chapel of San Niccolò.
Apr.ChurchPerugiaUmbriaBiordo dei Michelotti is killed in Perugia; the papal forces immediately attack the city to reclaim it for the Papal States. Conte da Carrara joins Mostarda da Forlì and invades the Perugia region. He reaches San Valentino and sets fire to the houses in that village as well as those in San Montano; he seizes some palaces beyond Capocavallo. He then returns to San Valentino and stays there for eight days. With Mostarda da Forlì, he rides to Monte Morcino and the Maestà di Colonnata, where they imprison numerous inhabitants and set the vineyards on fire. The inhabitants of the Castello di Bucarelli surrender under terms: despite this, he leaves the locality, taking the men as prisoners after sacking the castle and plundering the livestock. He reaches Veggio and, proceeding in the same manner, touches Prepo and San Vittorino; he then moves into the Duchy of Spoleto.
MayUmbria,  Veneto, Romagna, EmiliaHe stations in the countryside of Spello and Cannara; he takes the Castello di Bucarelli, then moves to Casalina and Ponte San Giovanni, causing significant damage in both places. However, he is defeated at San Bevignate by the Perugians led by Archimanno Tedesco and Ceccolino dei Michelotti, who had come specifically from Todi (70 cavalry are killed and another twelve are captured). At the end of the month, upon the signing of the peace treaty between the league and the Visconti, Conte da Carrara returns to Padua, where he is received with full honors by his brother. Shortly after, he departs at the head of 2000 cavalry, heading towards Romagna.
JuneLombardyDischarged by the league following the peace treaty signed the previous month, he leaves Mantua and, along with Corrado Prospero, Antonio degli Obizzi, and Francesco da Cantiano, forms a company of 4000 cavalry and 800 infantry. At the end of the month, he is persuaded by the Venetians, for a generous compensation, not to damage the lands of the Visconti, the Pisans, and the Sienese for a year and a half.
JulyChurchPerugia3000 cavalryUmbriaHe is hired by the Papal States for three months. Five days after signing the contract, the Papal States and Perugia conclude a peace treaty. Discharged, he is given 800 florins instead of the agreed 10,000. Consequently, the commune is forced to pledge the Rocca di Cannara to da Carrara, Corrado Prospero, and Antonio degli Obizzi in exchange for their commitment not to damage the territory. He transits through the territory of Città di Castello.
Aug.Comp. ventura, ChurchFermo, Church, PerugiaMarche, UmbriaHe moves into the Marche with Corrado Prospero and Francesco da Cantiano, at the head of more than 4000 cavalry, to exact revenge on Fermo for warmly welcoming the Marquis of the Marca, Andrea Tomacelli, within its walls. He enters Monte Vidon Corrado and besieges Marino di Santa Vittoria in the castle. He negotiates a truce of two months and twelve days, and the Fermani pay him 2000 ducats; in return, he relinquishes the lands he controls in the surrounding area. He then leaves to enter the service of Pope Boniface IX.
Sept.Comp. ventura, NaplesAnjouEmilia, AbruzzoThe Venetians accuse him of allowing looting, rapes, and killings during his march through the Bolognese. He denies all charges, stating that it was actually his troops who were attacked by the peasants, who also stole 25 of his horses. His actions were acts of retaliation. He moves alone to the Abruzzi in the service of the King of Naples, d’Angiò, to confront the troops of Louis II of Anjou. He reaches the Aquilano and stations at Paganica, conducting the usual raids in the vicinity. In December, he returns to the Marche, targeting the Papal States, and joins forces with Ceccolo Broglia.
1399
Feb.MarcheIn Civitanova Marche, Pope Boniface IX incites the inhabitants of the city to rebel against his rule.
MayComp. venturaChurchMarcheHe gathers the scattered forces from various parts and a large number of Ghibellines; with Ceccolo Broglia, he forms a large company that devastates the Marche. After nine hours, he defeats the militias of Galeotto Belfiore Malatesta at Cingoli, which were reinforced by Bolognese and Visconti contingents. He is excommunicated by Pope Boniface IX. Soon, a six-month truce is arranged with the opponents through Marino Tomacelli, another nephew of the pope.
JuneComp. venturaPerugiaUmbriaHe positions himself in the plain of Bettona and harasses the Perugia region while awaiting the 10,000 florins he is owed. Upon receiving the payment, he returns Cannara, committing to issue release receipts also on behalf of Corrado Prospero and Antonio degli Obizzi. With the dispute with Perugia resolved, he also obtains a loan of 333 florins from the priors. He travels through Bettona, Cellino Attanasio, and Orvieto; still with Ceccolo Broglia, he heads towards Siena.
JulyComp. venturaSiena, Pisa, LuccaTuscanyHe raids the Siena region with Ceccolo Broglia and 1500 cavalry along with many infantry; they vacate the territory only upon receiving a payment of 5600 florins (in reality, the total cost for the commune amounts to 6137 florins due to various gifts to some condottieri).
Aug.Comp. venturaLucca, PisaTuscanyHe threatens Lucca and Pisa. The Visconti reinforce the garrison of the latter.
Sept.ChurchPerugiaUmbriaIn Umbria with Ceccolo Broglia, he harasses the Perugia region, reaching as far as the Porta di San Costanzo of the capital.
Oct. – Dec.Comp. ventura, ChurchCortonaUmbria, TuscanyWith Ceccolo Broglia (600 lances), he confronts the Breton Company at Corbara, a fief of Francesco da Montemarte. During this period, he also damages the territory of Cortona: the Florentines protest against the incursions, thefts, and murders inflicted on their territory. At the end of December, he heads towards Perugia to enter the service of the pope. Pope Boniface IX grants him the title of Count of the Campagna of Rome.
1400ChurchColonnaLazioHe drives Nicola Colonna out of Rome, who had entered by surprise; 34 prisoners are executed.
1401ChurchMarcheHe operates in the Marche with his relatives Piero and Bonifacio da Carrara. He is involved in the capture of a Venetian galley.
1402
Mar. – Apr.ChurchMilan200 lancesUmbriaWith Mostarda da Forlì, he confronts the Perugians and the Visconti. He leaves the Spoleto area and heads towards Nocera Umbra, controlled by Ceccolino dei Michelotti; he overcomes the resistance of the defenders and captures the podestà Cristoforo di Donataccio. After sacking the city, he turns towards the Perugia region, damages the Brufa countryside, and reaches the Tiber. During the same days, he conflicts with Ugo Guazzalotti, Andrea da Mantova, and Antonio Montecuccoli, who decide to leave his company. Francesco Novello da Carrara sides with his brother, reminding the three captains that anyone who offends a member of the family breaks with all its members.
JulyMarcheHe stops in Ancona. He offers his services to the Serenissima in vain.
Aug.ChurchHe returns to the service of the Papal States.
Sept.ChurchMilanUmbriaHe penetrates the Perugia region again with Paolo Orsini, Mostarda da Forlì, and Braccio di Montone under the orders of Giannello Tomacelli.
Oct.UmbriaThe Florentine captains Crasso da Venosa and Bindo da Montopoli also join the papal forces; together they plunder the countryside. At the beginning of the month, his advance is halted by Ottobono Terzi.
Nov.UmbriaAt the end of the conflict, he enters Perugia following Giannello Tomacelli. During the year, he maintains a friendship with a relative of the pope, the Patriarch of Aquileja, Antonio Panciera; he also harbors hopes of aspiring to the position of Grand Master of the Order of the Knights of Rhodes.
1403
Jan.ChurchMilanApulia, UmbriaHe leaves Puglia and returns to Umbria with Crasso da Venosa and Bindo da Montopoli. He clashes near Assisi with 2500 men led by Ottobono Terzi; he is defeated after three hours of combat. Among the papal forces, there are 150 dead.
MayUmbriaHe returns to the territory of Assisi. With the help of Everardo de Nepis, he storms the capital with Paolo Orsini and Mostarda da Forlì. They besiege the city fortresses.
JulyUmbriaHe obtains possession of the two fortresses of Assisi from the castellans in exchange for a payment of 1000 florins.
………Romagna, Marche, UmbriaFrom Romagna, he moves to the Marche; he purchases Montegranaro and other lands from the lord of Fermo, Antonio Aceti. In December, he returns to Umbria. Together with Mostarda da Forlì, he welcomes Tomacelli’s wife at the Porta di San Pietro in Perugia; they accompany her with dancing and singing to the Palazzo del Podestà, where her husband resides. He remains to guard the city, which is torn by internal conflicts and threatened by exiles, while Mostarda da Forlì continues with his company of 600 cavalry to Viterbo.
1404
May – Oct.ChurchExilesUmbriaHe repels an attempt against Perugia by the exiles who, led by Giacomo degli Arcipreti, managed to enter the city through the Porta di San Matteo. He leaves the capital with Ceccolino dei Michelotti and heads to the Castello di Antignola to capture Arcipreti, who has taken refuge there under the protection of Giasone di Antignola. After a brief siege, the exile is forced to surrender. Arcipreti is imprisoned in the Cassero di Castiglione del Lago, while other exiles are imprisoned in the Rocca di Assisi.
In October, with Mostarda da Forlì, he is recalled to Rome on the occasion of the election of Cardinal Cosma Migliorati to the papal throne as Pope Innocent VII. The troops of the King of Naples also arrive in the city to restore order. da Carrara demands from the new pope the payment of 24,000 florins for overdue wages of his service, which expires in mid-month. He seeks to collect his debt with the mediation of the Florentines. He is only partially satisfied.
1405
Jan.NaplesUmbriaHe refuses to support Francesco Novello da Carrara against the Venetians due to serious conflicts that separate him from his half-brother. He enters the service of King Ladislaus of Anjou. He appeals to the Florentines to obtain from Città di Castello the sum that had been assigned to him years earlier by Pope Boniface IX, to be paid by the inhabitants as taxes to the Apostolic Chamber. Unsatisfied with his demands, he threatens the city.
Feb.UmbriaHe is given 7000 to 13000 florins by the inhabitants of Città di Castello.
Aug.NaplesChurchLazioWith Pieretto de Andreis and Gentile da Monterano, he is invited by the Colonna to reconquer Rome. He enters the city through the Porta di San Pietro, storms the Borgo Leonino, and occupies the portico of San Pietro. The citizens barricade the Ponte Sant’Angelo, where he is supposed to link up with the castellan Antonio Tomacelli. He deploys his troops (3000 cavalry) in the Rione di Ponte with orders to suppress any popular uprising. The Romans, fearing that their homes are exposed to looting, rise up and strip the soldiers of their weapons, forcing them to flee towards Castel Sant’Angelo. Conte da Carrara then exits the Vatican, moves to the bridge, and drives out the defenders, pursuing them to San Celso and the Prati di Nerone. Wounded in the head by a stone, he is dragged out of the fray.
1406
JuneThe pope, in consistory, issues a brief against da Carrara, the Colonna, Cencio di Paterno, and Gentile da Monterano. Days later, the condottiero signs an eleven-day truce with the papal forces, represented by Paolo Orsini, alongside Pieretto de Andreis at Tor di Mezza.
JulyAbruzzoPreviously Viceroy of Calabria and Molise for a short time, at the end of the month he is appointed by the King of Naples as Viceroy of the Abruzzi. He will hold the position until 1413.
1407
Feb.AbruzzoHe resides in L’Aquila. Upon hearing of the murder of Andrea Matteo Acquaviva in Teramo, he immediately goes to the city to prevent and stop any potential unrest. With the approval of Ladislaus of Anjou, he refrains from taking action against Enrico, Roberto, and Cola Melatini, the perpetrators of the murder. He promotes peace initiatives to maintain the city’s lordship with the Acquaviva family.
Aug.NaplesChurchMarcheHe aids the Marquis of Fermo, Ludovico Migliorati, with 600 cavalry against attacks from Braccio da Montone. Alongside Migliorati and Martino da Faenza (with an additional 600 cavalry and 300 infantry), he is defeated by the Perugian captain at Monte Conscio (Montecosaro).
Oct.MarcheHe supports Ludovico Migliorati against the da Varano; he reaches Sant’Angelo in Pontano and conducts several raids up to the gates of Camerino. He occupies Offida.
Dec.ApuliaHe heads to Puglia with Massolo d’Assisi, judge of peace of the commune of Fermo and representative of Ludovico Migliorati, to meet with Ladislaus of Anjou. Together with the opposing party, represented by Rodolfo da Varano, he discusses with the sovereign the terms for a general peace in the Marca of Ancona.
1408
Jan.MarcheA peace agreement is signed between the contending parties in the Marche.
Feb.Marche, AbruzzoIn Fermo. From there, he moves to L’Aquila.
Apr.LazioHe captures Ostia and attacks Rome again with 12,000 to 15,000 cavalry and 8,000 infantry. He assaults Porta San Paolo; with Pieretto de Andreis, he clashes with the Orsini near Trastevere. After a few days, he enters the city with de Andreis, Nicola and Giovanni Colonna, Gentile da Monterano, Battista Savelli, and Ludovico Migliorati; Paolo Orsini defects to the royal camp. At the end of the month, Conte da Carrara accompanies the king in a solemn ceremony held at the Palazzo di San Paolo fuori le Mura.
JuneLazio, UmbriaHe leaves Rome and encamps with Pieretto de Andreis, Paolo Orsini, Giovanni Colonna, Gentile da Monterano, and Ciucio da Paterno in the Todi countryside. The Perugian community allocates 150 florins for their comfort (provisions, wine, wax).
JulyLazioHe stations in the Perugia region with Paolo Orsini. Their men swarm the countryside, forcing the Perugians to send an ambassador to beg them to stop, allowing the peasants to harvest and gather their crops. In mid-month, they enter the city; 30 florins are allocated to honor them and provide some gifts. On this occasion, the two condottieri go to Santa Maria degli Angeli, near Assisi, and offer money to the Sanctuary of the Porziuncola (2 florins). Then, they return to Rome.
………ApuliaIn Capitanata.
1409
Apr. – MayAbruzzo, CampaniaHe is invited by Giannozzo Migliorati to come to the Fermano to expel his relative Ludovico. In exchange, he is promised the delivery of Monterubbiano. However, he cannot move at the moment as he is engaged in quelling a revolt in Chieti. The plot is uncovered and results in the execution of Giannozzo himself. In May, he is reported to be in the Benevento area.
JuneNaplesAntipopeMarcheHe operates with Martino da Faenza, Ceccolino dei Michelotti, and Tartaglia, who have arrived in the Marche with 3000 cavalry; he opposes Ludovico Migliorati, who is now in the service of the antipope Alexander V. He reaches Servigliano, seizes the Castello di Smerillo, which is handed over to Rodolfo da Varano; he besieges the Rocca di Monturano and sends 100 cavalry to plunder the Fermano up to the gates of the capital. He clashes with the adversaries at Falerone.
JulyMarcheHe is defeated by Ludovico Migliorati at Lauro (Loro Piceno)/Monte San Giacomo: among the Neapolitans, 100 cavalry and 3 squad leaders are killed. Count da Carrara pretends to leave the Marche, reaches Fiastra, and positions himself at Fontanelle; he occupies Montecosaro and then takes Smerillo, where he captures Berardo da Varano.
Aug.MarcheHe moves into the Fermano. In Fermo, he attempts to conquer the Rocca del Girifalco, whose garrison has rebelled against Migliorati.
1410
May – Nov.UmbriaHe, along with Tartaglia, maintains control of Perugia. In November, he successfully defends Perugia from attacks by Braccio da Montone; he aids Tartaglia with 50 cavalry.
1411
MayLazioHe is defeated at Roccasecca by Louis of Anjou, Paolo Orsini, and Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Leading the vanguard, he repels the initial enemy attacks; poorly supported by the rest of the army, he is overwhelmed and captured.
JulyUmbriaWith Ceccolino dei Michelotti and Manfredo da Barbiano (3600 cavalry), he is assigned to the defense of Perugia, threatened by Braccio da Montone. Along with the two condottieri and Berardo da Varano, he meets with Muzio Attendolo Sforza; on behalf of the King of Naples, he offers him the lordship of Cortona in exchange for his defection from the Angevin camp.
Sept.500 cavalryUmbriaHe attempts to surprise Braccio da Montone at Fratticciola Selvatica with part of his cavalry. The rival sends out some soldiers from the castle to act as bait. Count da Carrara, not sensing the trap, charges at the opponents while the Perugian condottiero attacks his encampments and captures his sons, Obizzo and Ardizzone. They are released without the payment of any ransom.
………Marche, AbruzzoHe takes Offida and Ascoli Piceno from Ludovico Migliorati. In his role as Viceroy of the Abruzzi, he receives orders from Ladislaus of Anjou to proceed with the utmost rigor in Teramo to put an end to the factional struggles between the Melatini and the Antonelli. For three years, he maintains strict order in the city.
1412
Jan. – Mar.AbruzzoHe strengthens the garrison of Perugia and reconquers nearly all the castles previously fallen into enemy hands. He moves to Cerqueto; Braccio da Montone suddenly attacks the inhabitants who had left the locality to graze their animals and collect wood. Count da Carrara comes to their aid. A skirmish occurs near Marsciano, where his men are defeated; his son Obizzo is captured along with 150 cavalry. Only thanks to the speed of his horse, passing through the enemy forces, does he manage to escape without being recognized.
In an attempt to recover, he attacks Collepepe (Coldipepo); however, Montone, alerted by his scouts, quickly crosses the Tiber, catches him unprepared from behind, defeats him once again, and captures his son Ardizzone (who is released along with Obizzo by Montone with rich gifts).
JuneLazio, CampaniaHe besieges Ostia with Muzio Attendolo Sforza, who has switched to the Neapolitan side, and sets up his camp at Dragoncelli. In mid-month, news of the peace between Ladislaus of Anjou and Pope John XXIII prompts him to return to Naples.
JulyCount da Carrara and Rodolfo da Varano are entrusted by the King of Naples with the task of exploring the possibilities of an agreement with Emperor Sigismund of Hungary. The mission does not yield concrete results.
1413
Feb.MarcheWith Muzio Attendolo Sforza and Andrea Malatesta, he attempts to intercept the march of Paolo Orsini heading to Rome.
MayNaplesAntipopeUmbria, MarcheHe raids the countryside of Foligno and besieges Bettona with Ceccolino dei Michelotti. Together with Muzio Attendolo Sforza and Malatesta Malatesta, he besieges Paolo Orsini in Rocca Contrada (Arcevia). He attempts to block Orsini’s path when the opponent abandons the locality to retreat to Rome. After the conquest of Rome by Neapolitan troops, there are great celebrations in Perugia with manifestations of joy, torchlight processions, illuminations, and thanksgiving processions.
JuneLazioHe is reported to be in Rome.
July – Aug.UmbriaHe is welcomed in Perugia with gifts and celebrations. A sum of 100 florins is allocated to honor the condottieri who have arrived in the city. Along with Ceccolino dei Michelotti, Muzio Attendolo Sforza, and Fabrizio da Capua, he confronts Paolo Orsini and Braccio da Montone at Ponte di Pattolo (Ponte Pattoli) for forty days.
………He is granted the lordship of Ascoli Piceno by Ladislaus of Anjou along with his sons Obizzo and Ardizzone. The inhabitants welcome him favorably upon his entry into the city.
1414
JuneNaplesSpoletoUmbriaThe antipope reconciles with the King of Naples; Count da Carrara is considered an ally of the latter in the negotiation. He operates on the borders of the Spoleto area, damaging the countryside of Trevi and Spoleto near Azzano and Beroide. Along with Tartaglia and Ceccolino dei Michelotti, he reaches Bazzano, Eggi, and Santi Apostoli.
JulyUmbriaHe sets up his encampments at Busano, advances towards Spoleto, and positions himself in front of the Porta di San Gregorio to besiege the city. He begins bombarding it and cuts the water conduits at two points, forcing Rodolfo da Varano to surrender.
Aug.NaplesExilesUmbria, AbruzzoUpon the death of Ladislaus of Anjou, he leaves the Spoleto area with Ceccolino dei Michelotti and heads towards Perugia. He then moves to the Abruzzi and defends L’Aquila from a first assault by Antonuccio dell’Aquila. He departs from the city in mid-month, leaving his son Obizzo in charge of the garrison.
Nov.NaplesAnjouAbruzzoHe again protects L’Aquila from a second attack launched by Antonuccio dell’Aquila with 200 cavalry and 400 infantry.
1415
Feb. – Mar.AbruzzoThe partisans of the Camponeschi descend armed into the streets of L’Aquila. Count da Carrara confronts them with his men; after the clash, he takes refuge in the castle. In March, a convoy of provisions destined for the defenders is intercepted near Amatrice. He is soon forced to leave the city with Berardo da Varano.
In the spring, he intervenes at Mosciano Sant’Angelo at the head of 150 men, both infantry and cavalry. Equipped with powerful artillery, he besieges the castle, whose defenders surrender due to hunger after 37 days. He hands over the fortress to Bonifacio Acquino.
Nov. – Dec.da CarraraAscoli PicenoMarcheHe recaptures Ascoli Piceno and its fortresses, thus returning to the lordship of the city.
1416
Jan.MarcheHe obtains the vicariate of Ascoli Piceno from Pope Martin V.
Sept.AbruzzoHe signs a truce with Saligny, the Grand Constable of James of Bourbon (Giacomo de la Marche), husband of Joanna of Anjou. The terms of the truce also include Jacopo Caldora and Antonuccio dell’Aquila, who had previously fought against the Neapolitan troops. The Queen of Naples also confirms him in the lordship of Ascoli Piceno.
1417
Jan.AbruzzoHe is ordered to return the lands of Verrucole, Petrella, and Cappadocia to Jacopo Orsini. During the same period, Joanna of Anjou instructs him to intervene again in Teramo to put an end to the internal factional struggles. The exiles are allowed to return to the locality, with the exception of Enrico Melatini.
JuneNaplesPerugiaLazioHe is sent to aid the Papal States and serves under Sforza. He arrives at Casamala, near Frosinone, with Jacopo Caldora and the Count of Monteodorisio, Perdicasso Barile. Along with these captains, he begins negotiations with Braccio da Montone to switch to his service. The plot is discovered. Caldora and Manno Barile are arrested, while Count da Carrara returns to the ranks.
Aug-LazioIn Marino, he joins forces with Francesco Sforza, Francesco Orsini, and Orso Orsini to attack Braccio da Montone in Rome. He sets up camp at Marmorella, moves towards the Porta di San Giovanni in Laterano, but is repelled by the infantry of his rival and that of Tartaglia. He retreats via the Via Ostiense, crosses the Tiber on a wooden bridge, and heads to Monte Mario. From there, he descends upon the city: the enemies withdraw from Rome, and he enters through the Porta Viridaria (San Pietro) and takes lodging near the Church of Santo Spirito. After a few days, he leaves the city and rides towards Valmontone. He remains in Lazio on behalf of Joanna of Anjou.
Oct.LazioHe confronts his adversaries in the Rieti area.
Dec.AbruzzoHe intervenes once more in Teramo, torn apart by factional struggles between the Antonelli and Melatini. He is appointed governor of the city, and one of his first acts is to reduce the tribute to the crown from 41 ounces of gold (originally established by Saligny) to 12.
1418
Feb.CampaniaAt the end of the month, James of Bourbon is freed by his wife, who had previously imprisoned him. Muzio Attendolo Sforza and Count da Carrara are designated, along with other dignitaries, as guarantors of the agreement that was reached.
Apr.Marche, TuscanyHe fights against Braccio da Montone in the Marche and southern Tuscany: he joins forces with Ulisse Orsini and promotes a revolt in the lands of the Perugian condottiero, which extends to the Orvieto area.
1419
Mar.MarcheHe is confirmed in possession of his fiefs by Queen Joanna of Naples (Giovanna d’Angiò).
MayHe is requested by the queen to pay 1600 ducats as homage to Pope Martin V.
JuneChurchPerugiaHe enters the service of Pope Martin V against Braccio da Montone.
Aug.AbruzzoJoanna of Anjou asks him to surrender the fortress of Pescara, which he controls, in exchange for 10,000 ducats.
Sept.UmbriaHe is sent with Angelo della Pergola, Bernardino degli Ubaldini, Lionello, and Ludovico dei Michelotti to assist the Count of Urbino, Guidantonio da Montefeltro. He gathers his troops in Gubbio.
Oct. – Dec.Umbria, CampaniaIn mid-October, along with Bernardino degli Ubaldini della Carda, Angelo della Pergola, Pietro da Bagno, Ludovico della Costa, and Perugino dal Lago, he approaches Assisi at night near the Convent of San Francesco. A friar shows the papal troops a small, weakly walled and unsupervised door. They open it, and 2000 cavalry and 1200 infantry storm into the city, reaching the square. The houses of the supporters of Braccio da Montone are sacked. After only three days, Montone recaptures the locality.
At the end of the month, Count da Carrara is reported to be in Naples for the coronation of Joanna of Anjou. In December, Pope Martin V grants him the vicariate of Offida and confirms his vicariate of Ascoli Piceno. He is also absolved for the excesses he committed, for which he seeks forgiveness.
1420PerugiaChurch, NaplesAbruzzoHe rebels against the Queen of Naples and defects to the enemy camp, followed by other lords and men-at-arms such as Giovanni Novello da Sora, Angelo di Leucio da Offida, and Antonio Torricelli, lord of Nocciano. However, his son Ardizzone does not follow him and continues to serve with Sforza. He is declared a rebel; his choice costs him the position of Viceroy of the Abruzzi, a trial by the new viceroy Cristoforo Gaetani, and the confiscation of his assets, with a sentence issued in Chieti in mid-March.
He, along with his partisans, plunders the localities of Manoppello, Serramonacesca, Gessopalena, and Taranta. With Angelo Orsini, he besieges Torino di Sangro, which had been ceded by a group of prelates from the diocese of Chieti to the city of Lanciano. Pietro Bonifacio Acquaviva, Duke of Atri, opposes him on behalf of the queen.
1421
Apr.ChurchNaplesMarcheHe aligns himself with the faction of Louis of Anjou (Luigi d’Angiò) and continues to fight against the Neapolitan troops. Braccio da Montone attacks him in Ascoli Piceno and forcibly convinces him to remain neutral, taking his son Ardizzone as a hostage for assurance.
Nov.He dies in Ascoli Piceno and is buried in the city’s cathedral. During his lordship, he minted some silver and copper coins bearing his family’s coat of arms, a four-wheeled cart.

Sources

-“Manifestò sino dall’adolescenza una perspicacia, ed una forza di carattere non comuni, e tali da renderlo distintissimo tra i personaggi del suo tempo.” DE MARCHI

-“Tra nemici caciossy qual Ciesare o Ponpeo od Anniballe fe’ di sua persona siffatte prove. Pare’ il Conte veramente uno drago, faciendosy fare da tuti piare, e abatendo e ucidendo qualunche incontrava.” GATARI

-“Fu uno dei più prodi guerrieri del suo tempo, e fu di grandissimo aiuto a Francesco suo fratello nelle luttuose sue circostanze. Sua madre era Giustina Maconia nobile matrona Padovana.” VERCI

-“E l’altro assunto alle famose scale,/ Chiamato da Carrara Messer Conte/ D’animo trionfante, imperiale.” Cambino Aretino riportato da FABRETTI

-“Homo nobile et gran Condutiero de gente d’arme, e molto amado dal Re (Ladislao d’Angiò).” DIARIO FERRARESE

-“Di cui all’età nostra si raccontano molte gloriose imprese, e fatti, degni di grandissima lode.” CAMPANO

-“Comes interim sua virtute, praeclarum nomen, praeter fatis amplas facultates, armi et egregia disciplina militari, tam domi quam foris siibi cumulatissime comparavit.” SCARDEONE

-Con Gentile da Monterano, Pieretto de Andreis e Giovanni Colonna “Egregiis tum copiarum ducibus.” PLATINA

-Con Paolo Orsini, Mostarda da Forlì “Valorosissimi capitani in quei tempi.” PELLINI

-“Questi, nella sua posizione indipendente di capitano di ventura, non s’era mai creduto in obbligo di seguire l’indirizzo politico di Francesco II (Francesco Novello da Carrara), benché il nome, che a diritto o a torto portava, rivolgesse in modo speciale a lui l’attenzione degli amici del signore di Padova, e la sua condotta, non affatto libera da influenze viscontee, avesse talvolta nociuto al buon accordo del principe carrarese con la repubblica di Firenze.” PASTORELLO

-“Strenuum..militem ac inter bellorum duces longe celebrem.” ZABARELLA

-Con Malatesta Malatesta “Bellicosos duces.” CRIVELLI

-Con Muzio Attendolo Sforza, Braccio di Montone, il Tartaglia, Paolo Orsini e Martino da Faenza “Al tempo di costoro non avivano in Italia pari e pochi delli altri erano nominati.” BROGLIO

-Con Ardizzone da Carrara “Uomini d’arme esperti e valorosissimi.” FABIANI

-“Durante il periodo in cui militò al servizio del papa Conte da Carrara seppe acquistarsi una certa considerazione presso la curia romana, tanto che sperò di ottenere la carica di gran maestro dei cavalieri di Rodi, ritenuta vacante a Roma perché occupata da Filiberto di Naillac, designato dall’antipapa Clemente VII.. Dei buoni rapporti tra il Carrara e la curia si servì in più occasioni Francesco Novello, affidando al fratello incarichi diplomatici e richieste per il papa. Fu poi grazie alla mediazione del Carrara che furono concluse le trattative per il matrimonio tra Giovanni, figlio di Francesco Bovello, e Belfiore da Varano, figlia di Rodolfo, signore di Camerino.” M. FRANCESCHINI

-“Diede vita e trasmise ai figli una signoria fondata principalmente sulla forza militare.. Dopo la battaglia dl Castagnaro divenne sul piano militare l’alter ego di Francesco Novello, il braccio armato della signoria e il principale punto di riferimento del suo esercito. La sua fedeltà, unita alle capacità di combattente, ne fece un elemento di forza della politica carrarese, ambiziosamente tesa alla conquista e al consolidamento di spazi regionali nel Nord-Est dell’Italia…Egli è l’unico a essere ricordato, accanto al protagonista Francesco Novello, in un poemetto trecentesco dedicato alla riconquista di Padova; è lui, oltre ai signori della città euganea, ad attirare di più le lodi e le adulazioni di cronisti e verseggiatori, che pure facevano a gara nell’incensare questo o quell’esponente della famiglia dominante…Lasciando Padova si trasformò.. stabilmente in capitano di ventura, spostando il baricentro della propria azione verso l’Italia centro-meridionale. Certo, tornò ancora nella città natale e, sino alla caduta della signoria, servì gli interessi della famiglia, svolgendo un’azione politico-militare coordinata con quella di Francesco Novello, ma i suoi destini, le sue fortune, i suoi personali progetti si svincolarono gradualmente dalle sorti del signore di Padova… Come rappresentante di Francesco Novello ne asseconda le strategie matrimoniali, intavolando per conto del signore di Padova le nozze di Marsilio da Carrara. figlio del Novello e una figlia di Andrea Matteo (Acquaviva) duca di Atri e conte di S. Flaviano; un analogo incarico ricevette in segreto per il progettato matrimonio di Giacomo da Carrara con Sveva Caetani, nipote del patriarca di Aquileia. I due tentativi andarono a vuoto ma, a conferma di una politica matrimoniale tendente ad allargare verso l’Italia centrale ed adriatica la rete di relazioni ed alleanze carraresi, stanno le nozze dello stesso Giacomo con Belfiore da Varano. figlia di Rodolfo III signore di Camerino, celebrate nel febbraio del 1403 dopo trattative cui prese parte ancora una volta Conte da Carrara… Conte incarnava un modello di condottiero legato al passato, non tanto nei valori professati quanto proprio nei “comportamenti” e nei modi di concepire la guerra sul campo.. Ma in battaglia valevano ormai le capacità manovriere, l’abilità nel disporre sul campo, coordinare e far muovere le truppe, strategia e tattica risultavano alla fine vincenti rispetto al coraggio fisico e alle personali doti di combattente di un condottiero.” RIGON

-“Primus semper in omni certamine.” VERGERIO

-“Ruppe la gente del Conte Carrara;/ in questo tempo, et non passò dui misci,/ colle sue sapire fare se repara/ et multi ne pilliò dentro Anscisci,/ do quale lengua may lo racontara/ li granni facti che fé in ticto pagisci?/ Se io recontasse tucta soa ventura,/ un granne libro serria de scriptura.” In occasione della conquista e perdita di Assisi. CANTARI SULLA GUERRA AQUILANA

– Visita all’accampamento di Conte da Carrara posto nei pressi di Roma (estate del 1400) “Questi disgraziati ogni giorno debbono prima di tutto spostare il campo in una nuova località e si può dire che questo sia uno dei lavori più tormentosi che l’uomo possa eseguire. Ma, non appena hanno fissato la zona dove accamparsi, vi si sparpagliano e, come bestie, si danno a cercare tane, a passare in rassegna i luoghi, a vedere quale scegliere. Mentre alcuni delimitano la zona dell’accampamento, altri tagliano rami, altri innalzano le tende, i più sono intenti alla costruzione di tettoie di fronda. C’è chi cerca di far scaturire la scintilla dalla selce, chi spiana le boscaglie incendiando gli arbusti, chi porta l’acqua, chi porta i cavalli a bere, chi prepara la paglia per i giacigli, chi la trasporta, nessuno sta fermo, nessuno riposa…Che dire del cibo e delle bevande? Essi vengono procurati in modo.. affannato e prepotente, giacché come belve feroci o uccelli rapaci mettono insieme il cibo con la violenza o col furto…Essi dormono sdraiati al suolo come un gregge di bestie, solo pochissimi possono riposare sotto le tende, altri sotto degli alberi, altri sotto delle tettoie di frasche. Ma la massa dorme all’aperto: si disseccano sotto la calura, sono intirizziti dal freddo, si inzuppano di pioggia o di brina.” Da una relazione dell’umanista Giovanni Conversini riportata dal SETTIA

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Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani è l'autore del sito Condottieri di ventura.