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Biographical notes on War Captains and Mercenary Leaders operating in Italy between 1330 and 1550

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Everardo Della Campana, Symbol of Terror in Medieval Italy

Italian CondottieriEverardo Della Campana, Symbol of Terror in Medieval Italy

In his time, a famous German condottiero, whose name, like those of his compatriots Giovanni di Raten (Johann von Rieten, also known in Italy as Anzi Tedesco) and Flach di Risach (Flaschen von Riesach), now means nothing but symbols and bringers of terror in the second half of the 1300s. Having returned to Germany, he died in battle in Switzerland.

Indice delle Signorie dei Condottieri: ABCDEFGIJLMNOPQRSTUVZ

Terror and Tactics of Everardo Della Campana in 14th Century Italy

A German condottiero known by various names, including Johan von Eberhardswiler, Everardo Suyler, Everardo Sniler, and Edoardo Snyler. In Italy, he was most commonly referred to as Everardo della Campana or Averardo Tedesco.

Death: 1405

Year, monthState, Comp. venturaOpponentConductActivity AreaActions taken and other salient facts
1351
Sept.ChurchVico15 cavalry horses, 6 packhorsesLazioHe clashed with the troops of the Prefect Giovanni di Vico in the Patrimony.
1352
Aug.MilanPerugiaUmbriaHe defended Bettona when the locality was assaulted by the troops of Andrea Salamoncelli.
1363
Nov.UmbriaHe was reported in Perugia with Giovanni della Campana. He contacted John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto) to switch to the service of the Pisans against the Florentines: he requested a contract for 50 lances with a salary of 1500 florins, 500 of which were for himself.
1364
MayPisaFlorenceTuscanyHe served in the White Company under Alberto Sterz. Under the command of Hanneken von Baumgarten (known in Italy as Anichino di Baumgarten), he attacked the Porta di San Gallo in Florence, distinguishing himself alongside Guglielmo Cogno. He penetrated the city and advanced to the Piazza di San Gallo but was confronted and repelled by Arrigo di Montfort. That evening, he also stood out at San Antonio del Vescovo, where he was knighted by Hanneken von Baumgarten.
1368
SpringChurchMilan20 cavalry horses, 7 packhorses
1369
Oct. – Nov.PerugiaChurchLazio, UmbriaHe ravaged the area around Viterbo, captured Monteverde, and took an archbishop prisoner. At the end of an expedition, he returned to Perugia, where he learned that Flach di Risach had been appointed Captain General. Everardo della Campana refused to swear loyalty to him. In addition, a serious tumult arose in the city, threatening the safety of the commune, following a brawl between one of his German men-at-arms and an Italian soldier serving with Concio degli Ubaldini. The two condottieri prepared their troops for combat, but the priors intervened and managed to calm the situation.
1371
Oct.ChurchMilan35 lancesEmiliaHe was granted a monthly allowance of 70 florins.
1373
MayMilanChurchLombardyHe was defeated and taken prisoner in the Battle of Montichiari.
Aug. – Sept.VenicePaduaLombardy, VenetoHe left Lombardy with Osvaldo Buler and Enrico di Chié and reached Venice with them. The three captains were warned by Bernabò Visconti, the Lord of Milan, not to cause any damage in the Mantua region during their passage.
1375ChurchFlorenceHe served in the Holy Company under John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto).
1376
Jan.UmbriaIn the Monastery of San Martino, in San Martino in Campo, after the surrender of the Perugia fortresses to the townspeople, he oversaw the proper execution of the agreements.
1378
………FlorenceChurchTuscanyHe followed John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto) in his change of allegiance.
JulyTuscanyIn Florence, alongside Everardo Lando, he knighted several members of the Office of the Eight of War.
1379
Apr. – MayCittò di CastelloUmbriaHe traveled with Lutz Von Landau (Lucio Lando) to the countryside of Città di Castello. He commanded 3,000 cavalry. He moved to the area around Perugia and was hired by Città di Castello.
JuneMantuaLombardyPresent in Acquanegra and Medole.
JulyEmiliaHe was reported in the vicinity of Brescello.
1384
Jan.PerugiaComp. ventura100 lancesUmbriaHe clashed with the companies of John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto), Giovanni degli Ubaldini, and Richard Ramsey.
Feb.ChurchAntipopeMarshal, 16 lancesHe later joined John Hawkwood’s company with the role of Marshal General.
Apr.His area of operations was the Kingdom of Naples. Everardo della Campana’s claims against the Apostolic Chamber amounted to 864 florins.
Sept.AnjouNaplesCampania, MarcheHe fought the troops of King Charles of Durazzo of Naples on behalf of Louis of Anjou. After the death of Louis of Anjou, he moved to the Marche region.
Oct.PerugiaComp. ventura100 lancesTuscanyThe Perugians sent him and his company to support the Florentines, who were engaged in the territory of Arezzo to confront Enguerrand de Coucy. Upon hearing of the death of Louis of Anjou, the French condottiero Enguerrand de Coucy found himself lord of this locality and sought to sell it to the highest bidder.
1385
Apr.Together with John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto), Giovanni degli Ubaldini, Taddeo Pepoli, and Boldrino da Panicale, he was among the founders of the Company of the Rose, which boasted 3,000 cavalry and 1,000 infantry.
MayPerugiaAssisi100 lancesUmbriaHe was contracted by the Perugians for six months. He reached Isola Romanesca (Bastia Umbra) and fought against the inhabitants of Assisi. He besieged Guglielmino d’Assisi in the city, who supported the Michelotti.
Aug.General captainUmbria, TuscanyFollowing the illness of Ugolino da Montemarte, he took command of the operations, conducting daily raids in the countryside. He moved into the territory of Siena, where he was joined by Pandolfo Baglioni, who had been sent to him by the priors.
Sept.Comp. venturaPerugiaUmbriaHe joined forces with Lucio Lando, Taddeo Pepoli, and John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto) to harass Papiano, Spina Nuova, and Cerqueto in the Perugia region with 2,000 cavalry. The Perugians provided him with a sum of money for his departure.
Oct.Comp. venturaFermoMarcheHe entered Mogliano and Francavilla d’Ete at the head of 1,000 cavalry and 3,000 archers. Fermo acknowledged a payment of 3,000 ducats for the transfer of the castle of Francavilla d’Ete, which had come into his possession; an additional 1,000 ducats were given to him for the return of the village of Francavilla d’Ete.
Nov.Together with Giovanni Beltoft and Taddeo Pepoli, he was hired by Florence, Bologna, Siena, and Perugia to counter the companies of adventure (with a contract for 300 lances).
1387
JuneUmbriaThe Perugians intercepted a message from the Florentines directed to him and Bernardon de la Salle (Bernardo della Sala).
Aug.MilanRomagnaHe was hired by Carlo Malatesta on behalf of the Visconti to block the passage of Bernardon de la Salle, who was, in turn, hired by the Lord of Verona, Antonio della Scala.
Sept.Comp.venturaUrbino, Città di Castello, PerugiaUmbriaHe joined forces with Bernardon de la Salle, Guido d’Asciano, and Rinaldo Orsini to plunder the counties of Gubbio and Città di Castello without facing any obstacles. He, along with Guido d’Asciano, occupied Cannara, moved into Chiugi, and passed through Panicale, Fontignano, San Martino dei Colli, and Torgiano, devastating their territories. He repelled an attempt by Boldrino da Panicale (with 200 lances) to drive him out of the Perugia region. After conducting the loot to Cannara, he shortly sold the locality to the Perugians for 17,000 florins.
Nov.Comp.venturaPerugiaUmbriaHe took advantage of the conflicts in Umbria between Nicola Orsini and Pope Urban VI to join forces with Bernardon de la Salle with 600 cavalry and plunder the Perugia region together. He was then confronted by Boldrino da Panicale with 200 lances.
Dec.Comp.venturaPisa, Siena, Lucca, FlorenceUmbria, TuscanyDespite the intervention of the Florentine ambassadors, their efforts were unsuccessful. He eventually left the Perugia region due to a lack of provisions. In the territories of Gubbio and Città di Castello, he joined forces with Guido d’Asciano, leading a company of 1,000 cavalry. Along with Bernardon de la Salle, Guido d’Asciano, and Konrad Von Weitingen (Corrado Lando), he headed towards Casoli and Volterra, setting up camp in Bagno ad Acqua in the Pisan territory. They then moved down the Valdarno to San Casciano dei Bagni, San Savino, Sant’ Agostino, and San Giusto alle Monache. Through Piero Gaetani, who served in the same company, he received 8,000 florins from the Pisans (4,000 of which were in pieces of velvet). Despite this payment, he continued to raid livestock (over 1,000 head) and captured more than a hundred men. After leaving Cascina, he stopped at Cevoli, Casciana, and Bagno ad Acqua. The Sienese paid the company 9,000 florins after part of their territory was also plundered; the Lucchese paid 4,000 florins, and the Florentines gave another 7,000 florins, which were handed over in Peccioli. Everardo della Campana and the other condottieri agreed not to cause any harm to the Florentine countryside for fourteen months. They then proceeded towards Fabbrica, passing through Laiatico and Volterra.
1388
Jan.Tuscany, UmbriaHe stayed for a few days in Colle di Val d’Elsa, caused damage in the Arezzo region, and from there continued on to Perugia, always accompanied by della Sala and Guido d’Asciano.
………Comp. venturaPerugia, ChurchUmbriaHe harassed the lands of Fontignano and Castiglion Fosco; reached Spello; and plundered the countryside up to Assisi.
Apr.UmbriaConfronted by 400 lances under the command of Ugolino Trinci, he had to abandon the region. He was contacted by the Florentines along with della Sala.
MayComp. venturaSiena, PisaTuscanyHe was accused by the Florentines of joining forces with Beltoft to carry out several raids. He was alerted by the ambassador Fino di Taddeo to oppose the English captain and prevent him from sacking Florentine, Pisan, and Lucchese territories. Ignoring this warning, he, along with de la Salle, Bertoldo Saer, and Asciano, penetrated into Sienese lands. After receiving 12,000 florins from the Sienese, he advanced into Pisan territory. Pietro Gambacorta gathered 2,000 infantry to defend the area, while Florentines and Bolognese sent reinforcements to the lord of Pisa.
JuneComp. venturaLuccaTuscany, UmbriaIn the defense of Pisa, there were 450 lances and many infantrymen. The exiles in his company seized two castles by agreement; the Pisans then handed over 13,000 florins to della Campana and the other captains. After receiving an additional 9,000 florins from the Lucchese, he returned to Cannara.
JulyComp. ventura, FlorenceMontecuccoli, MilanTuscanyWith Bernardon de la Salle, he threatened Alberguccio Montecuccoli, who received reinforcements from the Lucchese. He was given 6,700 florins to abandon the territory. In the same month, he entered the service of the Florentines. He joined forces in Cortona with l’Acuto and Carlo Visconti.
Nov.Comp. venturaPerugiaUmbriaTogether with Bernardon de la Salle and Guido d’Asciano, he had to abandon Cannara following the actions of Konrad Von Weitingen.
1389
Mar.AntipopeChurchUmbriaHe joined forces with Giovanni Beltoft and confronted the papal captain Pandolfo Malatesta near Umbertide. Malatesta arrived in the Perugian region with 2,000 cavalry. Everardo della Campana was put to flight, resulting in the capture of 50 cavalry and 200 infantry, as well as the loss of all the supply trains. Among his men, 220 cavalry were killed.
JuneTuscanyHe went to Anghiari for the review of his company.
1390GermanyHe returned to Germany.
1405SwitzerlandHe died in battle in Switzerland.

Sources

  • Con Giovanni di Raten, Flach di Risach, Corrado Lando, Lucio Lando, Everardo Lando “Their names are obscure today, but they were well known and much in demand in the middle decades of the fourteenth century.” CAFERRO

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Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani
Roberto Damiani è l'autore del sito Condottieri di ventura.